Citrus grandis

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus grandis

Citrus grandis in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Huajuhong

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Pummelo peel

Specific Name  : Exocarpium citri grandis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in summer when the fruit is unripe, treated with boiling water for a moment and the exocarp is cut into 5 or seven valves. Removed from the emergence and parts of mesocarp, compressed to a difinite shape and dried.

Description  : Exocarp of Citrus grandis "Tomentosa": Opposite foldly septangular shape or spreadly star shaped the single piece willow-leaf-shaped. When whole, 15-28cm in diameter when spread, 2-5mm thick. Outer surface yellowish green, densely pubescent with wrinkles and small oil cavities, inner surface yellowish white or pale yellowish brown with veins striations. Texture frafgile, easily broken, fracture uneven with one row of uneven and sunken oil cavities in the outer border, the inner part slightly soft and elastic. Odour aromatic, taste bitter and slightly pungent.Exocarp of Citrus grandis: Outer surface yellowish green to yellowish brown, glabrous.

Identification  : 1.Powder dark green to brown. Parenchymatous cells of mesocarp irregular, walls unevenly thickened, some beaded or extremely thickened at corners. Epidermal cells of pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular in surface view, anticlinal walls thickened. Stomata sunrounded, 18-31µm in diameter with 5-7 subsidiary cells covered with cuticle layer in lateral view. The outer radial walls thickened. Fracture of nonglandular hairs visible occasionally, cells of fragments up to over 10, about 33µm in diameter at the widest position, walls warty or outer walls smooth and inner walls rough, lumina containing pale yellow or brown granular masses. Prisms of calcium oxalate polyhedral, rhombic, rhomboid prismatic, rectangular or irregular, 1- 32µm in diameter, 5-40µm long, occurring in parenchymatous cells of mesocarp abundantly in rows. Vessels spiral or reticulated, stone cells and fibres visible occasionally.2.To 1g of the powder add 10ml of methanol, heat under reflux for 20 minutes, cool and filter. To 1ml of the filtrate add about 5mg of potassium tetrahydroborate mix well and add several drops of hydrochloric acid, a cherry red or purple colour is produced.3.Use the filtrate obtained from identification (2) as the test solution. Dissolve naringin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 0.4mh per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substances and the upper layer of ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (10:2:3) as the mobile phase. Apply to the plate 10µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with aluminum chloride TS and examine under ultra violet light (365nm). The fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D)Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol-acid acetic water (35:4:61) as the mobile phase. The wavelength of the detector is 283nm. The number of theoretical plates for the column is not less than 1000 calculated with the reference to the peak of naringin.Preparation of reference solution: Weigh accurately 20mg of naringin CRS, dried to constant weight at 110ºC in a 100 volumetric flask, dilute with methanol to volume and mix well. Accurately measure 3ml in a 10ml volumetric flask. Dilute with methanol to volume and mix well (containing 60µg of naringin per ml).Preparation of test solution: Weigh accurately 1g of the coarse powder, perform a determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 2) in a soxhlet's extractor, add 80ml of petroleum ether (60-90ºC), heat under reflux on a water bath for 2-3 hours. Discard the petroleum ether extract and expel solvent remained in the residue, add 80ml of methanol, further heat under reflux on a water bath for 3 hours until the extract is colorless, cool and filter. Transfer the filtrate to a 100ml volumetric flask, wash with container with a small quantity of methanol for several times, filter the washings to the same flask, dilute with methanol to volume. Measure accurately 5ml in a 25ml volumetric flask, dilute with methanol and mix well.Procedure: Inject accurately 5µl of the reference solution and 3-20µl (varying according to the concent) of the test solution into the column and calculate the content. It contains not less than 1.5% of naringin (C27H32O142H2O) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into slivers or pieces and dry in the sun.

Action  : To dispel cold, eliminate damp and phlegm, and arrest emesis or nausea.

Indication  : cough, itching of the throat and profuse expectoration in colds; nausea, vomiting and epigastric distension caused by improper diet or excessive drinking

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 6 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

P83 2.jpg
P84 1.jpg
P83 3.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus grandis

Citrus grandis in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Huajuhong

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Pummelo peel

Specific Name  : Exocarpium citri grandis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in summer when the fruit is unripe, treated with boiling water for a moment and the exocarp is cut into 5 or seven valves. Removed from the emergence and parts of mesocarp, compressed to a difinite shape and dried.

Description  : Exocarp of Citrus grandis "Tomentosa": Opposite foldly septangular shape or spreadly star shaped the single piece willow-leaf-shaped. When whole, 15-28cm in diameter when spread, 2-5mm thick. Outer surface yellowish green, densely pubescent with wrinkles and small oil cavities, inner surface yellowish white or pale yellowish brown with veins striations. Texture frafgile, easily broken, fracture uneven with one row of uneven and sunken oil cavities in the outer border, the inner part slightly soft and elastic. Odour aromatic, taste bitter and slightly pungent.Exocarp of Citrus grandis: Outer surface yellowish green to yellowish brown, glabrous.

Identification  : 1.Powder dark green to brown. Parenchymatous cells of mesocarp irregular, walls unevenly thickened, some beaded or extremely thickened at corners. Epidermal cells of pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular in surface view, anticlinal walls thickened. Stomata sunrounded, 18-31µm in diameter with 5-7 subsidiary cells covered with cuticle layer in lateral view. The outer radial walls thickened. Fracture of nonglandular hairs visible occasionally, cells of fragments up to over 10, about 33µm in diameter at the widest position, walls warty or outer walls smooth and inner walls rough, lumina containing pale yellow or brown granular masses. Prisms of calcium oxalate polyhedral, rhombic, rhomboid prismatic, rectangular or irregular, 1- 32µm in diameter, 5-40µm long, occurring in parenchymatous cells of mesocarp abundantly in rows. Vessels spiral or reticulated, stone cells and fibres visible occasionally.2.To 1g of the powder add 10ml of methanol, heat under reflux for 20 minutes, cool and filter. To 1ml of the filtrate add about 5mg of potassium tetrahydroborate mix well and add several drops of hydrochloric acid, a cherry red or purple colour is produced.3.Use the filtrate obtained from identification (2) as the test solution. Dissolve naringin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 0.4mh per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substances and the upper layer of ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (10:2:3) as the mobile phase. Apply to the plate 10µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with aluminum chloride TS and examine under ultra violet light (365nm). The fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D)Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol-acid acetic water (35:4:61) as the mobile phase. The wavelength of the detector is 283nm. The number of theoretical plates for the column is not less than 1000 calculated with the reference to the peak of naringin.Preparation of reference solution: Weigh accurately 20mg of naringin CRS, dried to constant weight at 110ºC in a 100 volumetric flask, dilute with methanol to volume and mix well. Accurately measure 3ml in a 10ml volumetric flask. Dilute with methanol to volume and mix well (containing 60µg of naringin per ml).Preparation of test solution: Weigh accurately 1g of the coarse powder, perform a determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 2) in a soxhlet's extractor, add 80ml of petroleum ether (60-90ºC), heat under reflux on a water bath for 2-3 hours. Discard the petroleum ether extract and expel solvent remained in the residue, add 80ml of methanol, further heat under reflux on a water bath for 3 hours until the extract is colorless, cool and filter. Transfer the filtrate to a 100ml volumetric flask, wash with container with a small quantity of methanol for several times, filter the washings to the same flask, dilute with methanol to volume. Measure accurately 5ml in a 25ml volumetric flask, dilute with methanol and mix well.Procedure: Inject accurately 5µl of the reference solution and 3-20µl (varying according to the concent) of the test solution into the column and calculate the content. It contains not less than 1.5% of naringin (C27H32O142H2O) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into slivers or pieces and dry in the sun.

Action  : To dispel cold, eliminate damp and phlegm, and arrest emesis or nausea.

Indication  : cough, itching of the throat and profuse expectoration in colds; nausea, vomiting and epigastric distension caused by improper diet or excessive drinking

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 6 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Citrus grandis

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Citrus grandis

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Citrus grandis in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Lixiao Yao, Qibin Yu, Ming Huang, Zhen Song, Jude Grosser, Shanchun Chen, Yu Wang, Frederick G Gmitter
Comparative iTRAQ proteomic profiling of sweet orange fruit on sensitive and tolerant rootstocks infected by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'.
PLoS ONE: 2020, 15(2);e0228876
[PubMed:32059041] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Zhengbing Wang, Chuanhe Gao, Jiali Liu, Wenwu Zhou, Xinnian Zeng
Host plant odours and their recognition by the OBPs of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).
Pest Manag. Sci.: 2020;
[PubMed:32058655] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Ya-Chun Chou, Shiming Li, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsifying delivery system containing 5-demethyltangeretin on inhibiting xenograft tumor growth in mice.
Int J Pharm: 2020;119134
[PubMed:32057886] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Pui Yeu Phoon, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Fibre-based oleogels: effect of the structure of insoluble fibre on its physical properties.
Food Funct: 2020;
[PubMed:32057036] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Mei Liang, Zonghong Cao, Andan Zhu, Yuanlong Liu, Mengqin Tao, Huayan Yang, Qiang Xu, Shaohua Wang, Junjie Liu, Yongping Li, Chuanwu Chen, Zongzhou Xie, Chongling Deng, Junli Ye, Wenwu Guo, Qiang Xu, Rui Xia, Robert M Larkin, Xiuxin Deng, Maurice Bosch, Vernonica E Franklin-Tong, Lijun Chai
##Title##
Nat Plants: 2020;
[PubMed:32055045] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects