Atractylodes macrocephala

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Atractylodes macrocephala

Atractylodes macrocephala in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Chaobaizhu ³´°×Êõ Jiaobaizhu ½¹°×Êõ Shengbaizhu Éú°×Êõ Tubaizhu ÍÁ°×Êõ Chinese Name (pinyin): Baizhu

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Bighead Atractylodes Rhizoma

Specific Name  : Rhizoma atracylodis macrocephalae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in winter while the lower leaf of the plant turns yellow and the upper leaf becomes fragile, removed from soil, baked or sunned to dryness and then removed from fibrous root.

Description  : In irregular plump masses, 3 - 13 cm long, 1.5 - 7 cm in diameter. Externally greyish yellow or greyish brown with warty prutrudings, interrupt longitudinal wrinkles and glooves and scars of fibrous rootlets. Remains of stems and bud scars attached to the apex. Texture hard, uneasily broken, fracture uneven, yellowish white to brownish, scattered with brownish yellow dotted oil cavities. The material dried by baking appearing horny and relatively deep colored or cracked. Odour aromatic, taste sweetish and slightly pungent, viscous in chewing.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Yellowish brown, needle crystals of calcium oxalate minute, 10 - 32 µm long, irregularly aggregated in parenchymatous cells, a few needle crystals up to 4 µm in diameter. Fibres yellow, mostly in bundles, long fusiform up to about 40 µm in diameter, walls fairly thickened, lignified with distinct pit canals. Stone cells yellowish, sub rounded, polygonal, rectangular, rarely fusiform, 37 - 64 µm in diameter. Parenchymatous cells containing inulin with radial striations. Vessel elements short, reticulate and bordered pitted up to 48 µm in diameter2.Shake 2 g of the powder with 20 ml of ether for 10 minutes and filter. Evaporate 10 ml of the filtrate to dryness, add 10% solution of vanillin in sulfuric acid, a violet colour is produced. Apply 1 drop of the filtrate to a piece of filter paper, dry it in the air and spray with 1% solution of vanillin in sulfuric acid, a pink colour is produced.3.To 0.5g of the powder add 2 ml of n-hexane, ultrasonicate for 15 minutes, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Prepare a solution of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae reference drug solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substances and petroleum ether (60 - 90ºC)-ethyl acetate (50:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and spray with 5% solution of vanillin in sulfuric acid, visualized with a current hot air. The spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution, and same pink principal spot (atractylone) is shown in both chromatograms.Total ash: Not more than 5% (Appendix lX K)Acid insoluble ash: Not more than 1.0% (Appendix lX K)Degree of discoloration: Weigh accurately 2 g of the very coarse powder to a 100 ml of stopper flask, add 50 ml of 55% ethanol, adjust pH value to 2 - 3 with dilute hydrochloric acid, shake for 1 hour and centrifuge at 4000 rpm for 15 minutes. Measure 10 ml of the supernatant and same volume of reference solution (dilute a mixture of 5 ml of standard ferric chloride CS. 3 ml of standard cobaltous chloride CS and 0.6ml of standard copper sulfate CS to 10 ml o9f water) separately into two Nestler cylinder's view vertically against to a piece of white paper. The color of the test solution should not be deeper then that of the reference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly cut into thick slices and dry.Rhizoma Atractylodis Macocephalae (processed with terra): Stir fry the slices with fine powder of Terra Flova Usta until the outer surface ashen and sift, using 20 kg of powder of Terra Flova Usta for 100 kg of the slices.Rhizoma Atractylodis Macocephalae (processed with bran): Cast the bran stir fried with honey in a hot pot, while smoking, add the slices, stir well until they become burnt yellow with burnt aroma, take out and sift the bran. To each 100 kg of bran stir fried with honey.

Action  : To invigorate the function of the spleen and replenish qi, to eliminate damp by causing diuresis, to arrest excessive perspiration, nd to prevent miscarriage. Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae (processed with terra): Hypofuntion of the spleen with anorex

Indication  : hypofunction of the spleen with anorexia, abdominal distension and diarrhea; dizziness and palpitation due to retention of phlegm and fluid; edema; spontaneous sweating; impending abortion

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 6 to 12 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Atractylodes macrocephala

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Atractylodes macrocephala

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Atractylodes macrocephala in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Songhong Yang, Jinlian Zhang, Yiqi Yan, Ming Yang, Chao Li, Junmao Li, Lingyun Zhong, Qianfeng Gong, Huan Yu
Front Pharmacol: 2019, 10;1629
[PubMed:32063848] [] [DOI] (P e)

Liqiang Wang, Hui Zhang, Xi Wu, Ziyue Wang, Weiwei Fang, Mei Jiang, Haimei Chen, Linfang Huang, Chang Liu
Phylogenetic relationships of Atractylodes lancea, A. chinensis and A. macrocephala, revealed by complete plastome and nuclear gene sequences.
PLoS ONE: 2020, 15(1);e0227610
[PubMed:31990944] [] [DOI] (I e)

Ka Woon Karen Chan, Hau Yin Chung, Wing Shing Ho
Anti-Tumor Activity of Atractylenolide I in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma In Vitro.
Molecules: 2020, 25(1);
[PubMed:31947901] [] [DOI] (I e)

Peifeng Zhang, Fang Zheng, Lei Chen, Xiaofang Lu, Wei Tian
CIP elicitors on the defense response of A. macrocephala and its related gene expression analysis.
J. Plant Physiol.: 2020, 245;153107
[PubMed:31881440] [] [DOI] (I p)

Yun Zhu, Cheng Li, Xinsheng Lin, Jingjing Sun, Yang Cheng
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao: 2019, 39(10);1180-1185
[PubMed:31801717] [] [DOI] (P p)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects