Zingiber officinale

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Nomenclature

=== Other Names:===
Common Names: ginger, common ginger, cooking ginger, Canton ginger

Historical Use of Zingiber officinale

=== Zingiber officinale in Traditional Chinese Medicine===
Please note that Zingiber officinale is an example of a single plant species that has multiple preparations used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Below you will information on the different preparations of Rhizoma zingiberis, Rhizoma zingiberis perparata, and Rhizoma zingiberis recens.


Background on Rhizoma zingiberis

Danganjiang µ­¸É½ª
Ganjiangpian ¸É½ªÆ¬
Chinese Name (pinyin): Ganjiang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Dried Ginger

Specific Name  : Rhizoma zingiberis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in winter, removed from fibrous root, wash, dried in the sun or at low temperature.

Description  : In flattened pieces with fingered branches, 3 - 7 cm long, 1 - 2 cm thick. Externally greyish, yellow or pale greyish brown, rough, longitudinally wrinkled and distinctly annulated nodes. Branched part usually with remains of scale leaves, apex with stem scar or buds. Texture compact, fracture yellowish white or greyish white, starchy and granular, exhibiting a distinct ring of endodermis, scattered with vascular bundles and yellow oil cells. Odour aromatic and characteristic, taste pungent.

Identification  : Powder: Pale yellowish brown, starch granules fairly abundant, ovate, elliptical, triangular ovoid, sub-rounded or irregular, 5 - 40 µm in diameter, hilum pointed at the small end, sometimes cleft, striations obvious. Oil cells and resin cells scattered in parenchyma containing pale yellow oil drops or dark reddish brown substance. Fibres in bundles or scattered, apex obtusely acute, few branched, some andulate or serrate on one side. 15 - 40 µm in diameter, walls slightly thickened, unlignified with fine oblique crisscross pits, frequently with thin septa. Vessels mostly scalariform, spiral and reticulate, few annular, 15 - 70 µm in diameter. Tubular containing dark reddish brown substance. Occasionally found beside vessels and fibres.Total ash: Not more than 6.0% (Appendix lX K)Assay: To a quantity of the coarse powder, add 700 ml of water and carry out the method for determination of volatile oil (Appendix X D). It contains not less than 0.8% (ml/g) of volatile oil

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, soak briefly, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices or pieces and dry. Irregular pieces 0.2 - 0.4 cm thick. Total ash not more than 5.5%.Rhizoma Zingiberis (carbonized): Stir fry as describe under the method for carbonized stir frying (Appendix ll D) until the surface becomes black and the inner part brown.

Action  : To dispel cold from the spleen and the stomach, to promote recovery from collapse, and to eliminate damp and phlegm. Rhizoma Zingiberis (processed): To dispel cold from the spleen and the stomach, and to arrest bleeding.

Indication  : Epigastric pain with feeling of cold, vomiting and diarrhea with cold extremities and faint pulse, dyspnea and cough with copious and frothy expectoration

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry plce, protected from moth.

Background on Rhizoma zingiberis perparata

Chinese Name (pinyin): Paojiang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Zingiber (processed)

Specific Name  : Rhizoma zingiberis perparata

Scientific Name:
Collection  :

Description  : Irregular inflated with fingered branched. Externally brownish- black or brown. Texture light and loose, fracture brownish black at the margin, brownish yellow at the inner part, fine granular, vascular bundles scattered. Odour aromatic and characteristic, taste slight pungent.

Identification  : Powder: brown, starch granules abundant, ovoid, ellipsoid, detoid-ovoid, sub-rounded or irregular, 5 - 40 µm in diameter. Hilum pointed in the smaller end and cleft like as well, sometimes striations visible, gelatinized masses visible occasionally. Oil cells and resin cells scattered in parenchyma, containing pale yellow oil drops or dark reddish brown contents. Fibres in bundles or scattered, blant acute at the end, few branch, sometimes sinuated on one side, 15 - 40 µm in diameter, walls thickened slightly, nonlignified with fine oblique pits and thin transverse septa usually visible. Vessels mostly scalariform reticulate or spiral, occasionally annular 15 vessels as well sometimes. Beside the vessels or fibres with tubular cells containing dark reddish brown contents visible, 12 - 20 µm in diameter.Total ash: Not more than 7.0% (Appendix lX K)

Processing  : Scald the clean dried ginger with sand (Appendix ll D) until inflated and brown externally.

Action  : To reinforce yang and dispel cold, to arrest bleeding by reinforce meridians.

Indication  : abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea caused by dificiency-cold in the speen and the stomach, spitting of blood, epistaxis, abnormal uterine bleeding due to deficiency of yang, to increase blood circulation

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry plce, protected from moth.


Background on Rhizoma zingiberis recens

Xian Shengjiang ÏÊÉú½ª
Chinese Name (pinyin): Shengjiang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Fresh Ginger

Specific Name  : Rhizoma zingiberis recens

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn and winter, remove from fibrous root and soil.

Description  : In irregular pieces, slightly compressed with finger like branches, 4 - 18 cm thick. Externally yellowish brown or greyish brown, ringed the top of each branch exhibiting stem scar or buds. Texture: fragile, easily broken, fracture pale yellow with a well marked endodermis ring and scattered vascular bundles. Odor: aromatic and characteristic and taste pungent.

Identification  :

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, wash clean and cut into thick slices before use.Peel of Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens: Scrape the outer peel of clean Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens.

Action  : To induce perspiration and dispel cold, to warm the stomach and arrest vomiting, and to resolve phlegm amd relieve cough.

Indication  : common cold; vomiting caused by cold in the stomach; cough with expectoration of whitish thin sputum

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, or embed in wet sand, protected from freezing.

Synonymns for Zingiber officinale

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Zingiber officinale

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Zingiber officinale in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

I. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Feb;48(2):530-5. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.026. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) to gauge the anti-stress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the anti-stress activity of Z. officinale in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4 degrees for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN and corticosterone levels. There is also alteration in the blood cell counts. Pretreatment with the extract significantly ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels and blood cell counts in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and increase in anoxia tolerance time in physical and anoxia stress models, respectively. Treatment groups also reverted back increase in liver, adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress and swimming endurance stress models. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. officinale has significant adaptogenic activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in different stress models.

PMID: 19909780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



II. Ayurvedic processed seeds of nux-vomica: neuropharmacological and chemical evaluation.

Fitoterapia. 2010 Apr;81(3):190-5. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.08.023. Epub 2009 Aug 21.

The effect of detoxification on Strychnos nux-vomica seeds by traditional processing with aloe and ginger juices (B), by frying in cow ghee (C), and by boiling in cow milk (D) was investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these samples were subjected to spontaneous motor activity (SMA), pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, PTZ induced convulsions, diazepam-assisted protection, and morphine-induced catalepsy. All samples reduced SMA and inhibited catalepsy. The seeds processed in milk (D) showed the lowest strychnine content in the cotyledons, exhibited marked inhibition of PTZ induced convulsions and maximal potentiation of hypnosis, and were the safest (LD(50)).

PMID: 19699784 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



III. Anxiolytic and antiemetic activity of Zingiber officinale.

Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):621-6.

The benzene fraction (BF) of a petroleum ether extract of dried rhizomes of ginger, which contained anticonvulsant principle(s), was screened for anxiolytic and antiemetic activity. Motor coordination was not affected by BF per se, but diazepam-induced motor incoordination was potentiated. Animals treated with BF showed decreased occupancy in the closed arm of the elevated plus maze suggesting the presence of anxiolytic principles in the BF. BF also blocked lithium sulphate-induced conditioned place aversion indicating antiemetic activity. These findings suggest that the fraction (BF) possesses anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and antiemetic activity.

PMID: 12410541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Abdolkarim Hosseini, Naser Mirazi
Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice.
Epilepsy Res.: 2014, 108(3);411-9
[PubMed:24529324] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)


Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Most research suggests that ginger can be used safely during pregnancy, but there's some concern that ginger may affect fetal sex hormones. [1]

Adverse Effects