Swertia mileensis

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Swertia mileensis

Swertia mileensis in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Qingyedan

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Mile Swertia Herb

Specific Name  : Herba swertiae mileensis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected at flowering or fruiting period in autumn, removed from soil and dried in the sun.

Description  : 15 - 45cm long, roots conical, 2 - 7cm long, some branched. Externally yellow or brownish yellow. Stems quadrangular bearing extremely narrow wings on the ridges, 1 - 2mm in diameter, externally yellowish green or yellowish brown, frequently reddish purple at the lower part, fracture hollowed. Leaves opposite, sessille mostly crumpled or broken when whole, stripe shaped or narrow lanceolate, 1 - 4cm long, 2 - 7mm wide, cymes conical, calyx 4, stripe shaped, yellowish green, corolla 4 partite, yellow, segments ovate-lanceolate, bearing 2 gland pits inside the base, stamens 4, capsules narrowly ovoid, seeds numerous, small, brown, odour slight taste bittter.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Green or yellowish green, stone cells subrounded, subrectangular, elongated striped shaped or fusiform, sometimes prominent or elongated at one end, 100 - 120µm in diameter, lignified walls 5 - 10µm thick, pits pointed, pit canals distinct. Fibrous long fusiform, 180 - 220µm long, 8 - 10µm in diameter, lignified, walls about 2.5µm thick, with distinct pits. Walls of the upper epidermal cells of the leaves sinuous, cuticle striations of the lower epidermal cells indistinct, stomata numerous, anisocytic or anomocytic. Crystals of calcium oxalate frequently occurring in rods, needles or plates in the msophyll cells. Pollen grains rounded, 30 - 37µm in diameter which 3 germinal furrows and finely reticulated striations.2.To 5g of the powder add 45ml of methanol, heat under reflux for 30 minutes and filter. Apply 1 drop of the filtrate to filter paper, allow to dry, add 1 drop of aluminum trichloride TS and examine under ultra violet light (365nm) after drying, a greenish yellow fluorescence is produced.3.To 2ml of the filtrate obtained under Identification test (2), add 2 - 3 drops of 10% solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride in methanol and 2 - 3 drops of 10% solution of potassium hydroxide in methanol, heat slightly on a water bath, allow it to cool, adjust to pH 3 - 4 with dilute hydrochloric acid and filter. Add 1 - 2 drops of ferric chloride TS to the filtrate, a purple color is produced.4.Concentrate the remaining filtrate obtained under Identification test (2) to about 10ml as the test solution. To oleonolic acid CRS add methanol to produced a solution containing 2mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (12:4:0.5) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 2µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and dry at 105ºC for about 5 minutes. A purplish red spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.5.Apply 1ml of the test solution obtained under Identification test (4) to a pretreated aluminum oxide column (about 5mm in internal diameter packed with 1g of neutral aluminum oxide, 100 - 200 mesh), elute with about 2ml of methanol. Evaporate the eluate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 2 ml of methanol as the test solution. To swertiamarin CRS add methanol to produce a solution containing 8mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel GF254 as the coating substance and chlorofrom methanol (85:125) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 1 - 2µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and examine under ulra-violet light (254nm). The spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, spray with water, soften briefly, cut into sections and dry in the air.

Action  : To increase the flow of bile, and to remove heat and damp.

Indication  : jaundice with dark urine; acute urinary tract infection with difficult painful urination

Precautions  : Used with caution to patients with deficiency-cold.

Dosage  : 10 to 15 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated dry place.

Synonymns for Swertia mileensis

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Swertia mileensis

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Swertia mileensis in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Xiaolong Liu, Yanhong Shi, Haijun Hu, Jia Li, Chunge Li, Li Yang, Zhengtao Wang
Three new C-glycosyflavones with acetyl substitutions from Swertia mileensis.
J Nat Med: 2018, 72(4);922-928
[PubMed:30051310] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Lifen Du, Yongfang Lei, Jinglou Chen, Hongping Song, Xinying Wu
Potential Ameliorative Effects of Qing Ye Dan Against Cadmium Induced Prostatic Deficits via Regulating Nrf-2/HO-1 and TGF-β1/Smad Pathways.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.: 2017, 43(4);1359-1368
[PubMed:28992620] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Jie Li, Ji Zhang, Hang Jin, Yuan-Zhong Wang, Heng-Yu Huang
##Title##
Pharmacogn Mag: 2017, 13(49);13-20
[PubMed:28216877] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Xinying Wu, Ye Gu, Lun Li
The anti-hyperplasia, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Qing Ye Dan and swertiamarin in testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.
Toxicol. Lett.: 2017, 265;9-16
[PubMed:27866977] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Yao-Li Li, Ming-Ying Shang, Chang-An Geng, Xue-Mei Zhang, Ji-Jun Chen, Shao-Qing Cai
[Simultaneous determination of five constituents in eight Qingyedan species derived from Swertia plants by HPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi: 2013, 38(9);1394-400
[PubMed:23944076] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects