Salvia miltiorrhiza

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Salvia miltiorrhiza

Salvia miltiorrhiza in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Xuedanshen Ѫµ¤²Î Zidanshen ×ϵ¤²Î Chinese Name (pinyin): Danshen

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Red Sage Root

Specific Name  : Radix salviae miltiorrhizae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn and spring, removed from soil and dried.

Description  : Rhizomes short and stout, sometimes with remains of stem at the apex. Several roots, long cylindrical, slightly curved, some branched and with rootlets, 10 - 20 cm long, 0.3 - 1 cm in diameter. Externally brownish red or dark brownish red, rough, longitudinal wrinkled. The bark of old roots loose mostly purplish brown, usually scaling off. Texture hard and fragile, fracture loose, cleft or slightly even and dense with brownish red bark and greyish yelklow or purplish brown wood, showing bundles of vessels, yellowish white, arranged radially, Odour slight, taste slightly bitter and astringent. Cultivars relatively stout, 0.5 - 1.5 cm in diameter. Externally reddish brown, longitudinal wrinkled, the bark closely adhering to wood and uneasy to be scaled off. Texture compact, fracture relatively even, slightly horny.

Identification  : 1.Boil 5 g of the powder in 5 ml of water for 15 - 12 minutes, cool and filter. Concentrate the filtrate on a water bath, dissolve the extract in 3 - 5 ml of ethanol, filter. Apply several drops of the filtrate to a piece of filter paper, allow it to dry and examine under ultra violet light (365 nm), a bright bluish grey fluorescence is produced. Expose the filter paper to ammonia vapour for 20 minutes. Remove the filter paper and examine again under ultra violet light (365 nm), a pale bluish green fluorescence is produced.2.To 0.5 ml of the filtrate obtained from Identification (1), add 1 - 2 drops of ferric chloride TS, a dull green colour is produced.3.To 1 g of the powder add 5 ml of ether, shake in a stopper test tube and stand for 1 hour and filter. Evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of ethyl acetate as the test solution. Prepare a solution of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae reference drug in the same manner as the reference drug solution. Dissolve tanshione llA CRS in ethyl acetate to produce a solution of 2 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate (19:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 5 µl of each of the three solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. The spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution and the dark red spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D)Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol water (75:25) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector is 270 nm. The number of theoretical plates of the column is not less than 2000, calculated with the reference to the peak of tanshione llA.Preparation of reference solution: accurately weigh 10 mg of tanshione llA CRS in a 50 ml amber volumetric flask. Dissolve and dilute with methanol to volume and mix well. Accurately measure 2 ml in a 25 ml amber volumetric flask, dilute with methanol to volume and mix well (containing 16 µg tanshione llA per ml.Preparation of test solution: Weigh accurately 0.3 g of the powder (through a mesh sieve) in a glass stoppered conical flask. Add accurately 50 ml of methanol, stopper tightly and weigh. Heat under reflux for 1 hour, cool, stopper tightly. Weigh and add methanol to make up for the lost weight. Mix well and filter. Discard the initial filtrate and use the successive filtrate as the test solution.Procedures: Accurately inject 5 µl of each of reference solution and the test solution, respectively into the column, determine and calculate the content. It contains not less than 0.2% of tanshione llA (C19H18O3).

Processing  : Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae: Removed foreign matter and remains of the stems, washed clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry.Processed with wine: Stir fry the slices as described under the method for stir frying with wine (Appendix ll D) to dryness.

Action  : To remove blood stasis and relieve pain, to promote th elfow od blood and stimulate menstrual discharge, and to ease the mind.

Indication  : mentrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea; mass formation in the abdomen; prickien pain in the chest and abdomen, pain in acute arthritis and subcutaneous infections; restlessness and insomnia; hepatosplenomegaly; angina pectoris

Precautions  : Icompatible with Rhizoma et Radix Veratri.

Dosage  : 9 to 15 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place.

Synonymns for Salvia miltiorrhiza

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Salvia miltiorrhiza

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Salvia miltiorrhiza in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Xiaolong Hao, Zhongqiang Pu, Gang Cao, Dawei You, Yang Zhou, Changping Deng, Min Shi, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Yao Wang, Wei Zhou, Guoyin Kai
J Adv Res: 2020, 23;1-12
[PubMed:32071787] [] [DOI] (P e)

Xuemin Wei, Pei Cao, Gang Wang, Jianping Han
Microbial inoculant and garbage enzyme reduced cadmium (Cd) uptake in Salvia miltiorrhiza (Bge.) under Cd stress.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.: 2020, 192;110311
[PubMed:32061988] [] [DOI] (I a)

Xixi Zhao, Li Yu, Yulin Chen, Yu Wang, Haitong Wan, Jiehong Yang
Front Pharmacol: 2019, 10;1598
[PubMed:32038261] [] [DOI] (P e)

Mengying Li, Dengke Yin, Jiachen Li, Fuping Shao, Qingqing Zhang, Qianqian Jiang, Mengmeng Zhang, Ye Yang
Pharmazie: 2020, 75(1);18-22
[PubMed:32033628] [] [DOI] (I p)

Dongxue Wu, Mengqi Huo, Xi Chen, Yanling Zhang, Yanjiang Qiao
Mechanism of tanshinones and phenolic acids from Danshen in the treatment of coronary heart disease based on co-expression network.
BMC Complement Med Ther: 2020, 20(1);28
[PubMed:32020855] [] [DOI] (I e)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects