Prunus armeniaca

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P262 1.jpg
Tcm p52 0028.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Prunus armeniaca

Prunus armeniaca in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Kuxingren ¿àÐÓÈÊ Xingrenni ÐÓÈÊÄà Chinese Name (pinyin): Xingren

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Bitter Apricot Kernel

Specific Name  : Semen Armeniacae Amarum

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fruit is collected in summer and the seed is remove from the pulp and the shell and dried in the sun.

Description  : Flattened cordate, 1 - 11.9cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm wide, 5 - 8mm thick. Externally yellowish brown to deep brown, acute at one end, plump and un-symetrical and rounded at the other end. A short linear hilum situated at the acute end and a chalaza at the rounded end with numerous upward deep brown veins. Testa thin, cotyledons 2, milky white, oily, odorless and taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Grind several grains of the drug with water, a characteristic odor of benzaldehyde is perceptible.2.Break several grains of the drug to pieces and immediately place about 0.11g into a test tube, moistened with several drops of water, hang a strip of trinitrophenol TP and stopper tightly. Heat on a warm water bath for 10 minutes, the test paper turns to a brick red color.3.To 1g, add 50ml of ether, heat under reflux for 1 hour and discard the ether solution. Wash the residue with ether, evaporate to dryness and 30ml of methanol and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool to room temperature, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve a quantity of amygdalin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the lower layer of chloroform ethyl acetate-methanol-water (15: 40: 22: 10) on standing at 5 - 10ºC for 12 hours as the mobile phase. After developing and removal of the plate, spray immediately with a solution of phosphomolybdic acid in sulfuric acid (to 2g of phosphomolybdic acid, add 20ml of water to dissolve. Add slowly 30ml of sulfuric acid and mix well). Heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Place 15g of the coarse powder, accurately weighed in a kjeldahl flask, add 150ml of water. Stopper tightly and immediately, allow to stand for 2 hours. Connect the condenser and distill. Collect the distillate in a receiver containing 10ml of water and 2 ml of ammonia TS. Cool on an ice bath until it shows no reaction characteristic of hydrocyanic acid (to 2ml of ditillate, adjust alkaline with sodium hydroxide TS and several drops of trinitropanol TS and no red color is produced). Stop the distillation, add 2ml of potassium iodide TS to the distillate and titrate with silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS slowly until a yellowish white opalescence is produced. Each ml of silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS is equivalent to 91.48mg of C20 H27 NO11. It contains not less than 3.0% of amygdalin (C20 H27 NO11).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, break to pieces before use.Semen Armeniacae Amarum (rinse in boiling water): Peel as described under the method for rinsing in boiling water (Appendix ll D). Break to pieces before use.Stir fried: Stir fry the rinsed Semen Armeniacae Amarum as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until it becomes yellow. Break to piece before use.

Action  :

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 6-10g

Storage  :

P262 1.jpg
Tcm p52 0028.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Prunus armeniaca

Prunus armeniaca in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Kuxingren

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Bitter apricot seed

Specific Name  : Semen armeniacae amarum

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fruit is collected in summer and the seed is remove from the pulp and the shell and dried in the sun.

Description  : Flattened cordate, 1 - 11.9cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm wide, 5 - 8mm thick. Externally yellowish brown to deep brown, acute at one end, plump and un-symetrical and rounded at the other end. A short linear hilum situated at the acute end and a chalaza at the rounded end with numerous upward deep brown veins. Testa thin, cotyledons 2, milky white, oily, odorless and taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Grind several grains of the drug with water, a characteristic odor of benzaldehyde is perceptible.2.Break several grains of the drug to pieces and immediately place about 0.11g into a test tube, moistened with several drops of water, hang a strip of trinitrophenol TP and stopper tightly. Heat on a warm water bath for 10 minutes, the test paper turns to a brick red color.3.To 1g, add 50ml of ether, heat under reflux for 1 hour and discard the ether solution. Wash the residue with ether, evaporate to dryness and 30ml of methanol and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool to room temperature, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve a quantity of amygdalin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the lower layer of chloroform ethyl acetate-methanol-water (15: 40: 22: 10) on standing at 5 - 10ºC for 12 hours as the mobile phase. After developing and removal of the plate, spray immediately with a solution of phosphomolybdic acid in sulfuric acid (to 2g of phosphomolybdic acid, add 20ml of water to dissolve. Add slowly 30ml of sulfuric acid and mix well). Heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Place 15g of the coarse powder, accurately weighed in a kjeldahl flask, add 150ml of water. Stopper tightly and immediately, allow to stand for 2 hours. Connect the condenser and distill. Collect the distillate in a receiver containing 10ml of water and 2 ml of ammonia TS. Cool on an ice bath until it shows no reaction characteristic of hydrocyanic acid (to 2ml of ditillate, adjust alkaline with sodium hydroxide TS and several drops of trinitropanol TS and no red color is produced). Stop the distillation, add 2ml of potassium iodide TS to the distillate and titrate with silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS slowly until a yellowish white opalescence is produced. Each ml of silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS is equivalent to 91.48mg of C20 H27 NO11. It contains not less than 3.0% of amygdalin (C20 H27 NO11).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, break to pieces before use.Semen Armeniacae Amarum (rinse in boiling water): Peel as described under the method for rinsing in boiling water (Appendix ll D). Break to pieces before use.Stir fried: Stir fry the rinsed Semen Armeniacae Amarum as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until it becomes yellow. Break to piece before use.

Action  : To relieve cough and asthma, and to relax bowels.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 4.5 to 9 g, to be added when the decoction is nearly done.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

P262 1.jpg
Tcm p52 0028.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Prunus armeniaca

Prunus armeniaca in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Kuxingren ¿àÐÓÈÊ Xingrenni ÐÓÈÊÄà Chinese Name (pinyin): Xingren

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Bitter Apricot Kernel

Specific Name  : Semen Armeniacae Amarum

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fruit is collected in summer and the seed is remove from the pulp and the shell and dried in the sun.

Description  : Flattened cordate, 1 - 11.9cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm wide, 5 - 8mm thick. Externally yellowish brown to deep brown, acute at one end, plump and un-symetrical and rounded at the other end. A short linear hilum situated at the acute end and a chalaza at the rounded end with numerous upward deep brown veins. Testa thin, cotyledons 2, milky white, oily, odorless and taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Grind several grains of the drug with water, a characteristic odor of benzaldehyde is perceptible.2.Break several grains of the drug to pieces and immediately place about 0.11g into a test tube, moistened with several drops of water, hang a strip of trinitrophenol TP and stopper tightly. Heat on a warm water bath for 10 minutes, the test paper turns to a brick red color.3.To 1g, add 50ml of ether, heat under reflux for 1 hour and discard the ether solution. Wash the residue with ether, evaporate to dryness and 30ml of methanol and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool to room temperature, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve a quantity of amygdalin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the lower layer of chloroform ethyl acetate-methanol-water (15: 40: 22: 10) on standing at 5 - 10ºC for 12 hours as the mobile phase. After developing and removal of the plate, spray immediately with a solution of phosphomolybdic acid in sulfuric acid (to 2g of phosphomolybdic acid, add 20ml of water to dissolve. Add slowly 30ml of sulfuric acid and mix well). Heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Place 15g of the coarse powder, accurately weighed in a kjeldahl flask, add 150ml of water. Stopper tightly and immediately, allow to stand for 2 hours. Connect the condenser and distill. Collect the distillate in a receiver containing 10ml of water and 2 ml of ammonia TS. Cool on an ice bath until it shows no reaction characteristic of hydrocyanic acid (to 2ml of ditillate, adjust alkaline with sodium hydroxide TS and several drops of trinitropanol TS and no red color is produced). Stop the distillation, add 2ml of potassium iodide TS to the distillate and titrate with silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS slowly until a yellowish white opalescence is produced. Each ml of silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS is equivalent to 91.48mg of C20 H27 NO11. It contains not less than 3.0% of amygdalin (C20 H27 NO11).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, break to pieces before use.Semen Armeniacae Amarum (rinse in boiling water): Peel as described under the method for rinsing in boiling water (Appendix ll D). Break to pieces before use.Stir fried: Stir fry the rinsed Semen Armeniacae Amarum as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until it becomes yellow. Break to piece before use.

Action  :

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 6-10g

Storage  :

P262 1.jpg
Tcm p52 0028.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Prunus armeniaca

Prunus armeniaca in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Kuxingren

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Bitter apricot seed

Specific Name  : Semen armeniacae amarum

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fruit is collected in summer and the seed is remove from the pulp and the shell and dried in the sun.

Description  : Flattened cordate, 1 - 11.9cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm wide, 5 - 8mm thick. Externally yellowish brown to deep brown, acute at one end, plump and un-symetrical and rounded at the other end. A short linear hilum situated at the acute end and a chalaza at the rounded end with numerous upward deep brown veins. Testa thin, cotyledons 2, milky white, oily, odorless and taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Grind several grains of the drug with water, a characteristic odor of benzaldehyde is perceptible.2.Break several grains of the drug to pieces and immediately place about 0.11g into a test tube, moistened with several drops of water, hang a strip of trinitrophenol TP and stopper tightly. Heat on a warm water bath for 10 minutes, the test paper turns to a brick red color.3.To 1g, add 50ml of ether, heat under reflux for 1 hour and discard the ether solution. Wash the residue with ether, evaporate to dryness and 30ml of methanol and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool to room temperature, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve a quantity of amygdalin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the lower layer of chloroform ethyl acetate-methanol-water (15: 40: 22: 10) on standing at 5 - 10ºC for 12 hours as the mobile phase. After developing and removal of the plate, spray immediately with a solution of phosphomolybdic acid in sulfuric acid (to 2g of phosphomolybdic acid, add 20ml of water to dissolve. Add slowly 30ml of sulfuric acid and mix well). Heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Place 15g of the coarse powder, accurately weighed in a kjeldahl flask, add 150ml of water. Stopper tightly and immediately, allow to stand for 2 hours. Connect the condenser and distill. Collect the distillate in a receiver containing 10ml of water and 2 ml of ammonia TS. Cool on an ice bath until it shows no reaction characteristic of hydrocyanic acid (to 2ml of ditillate, adjust alkaline with sodium hydroxide TS and several drops of trinitropanol TS and no red color is produced). Stop the distillation, add 2ml of potassium iodide TS to the distillate and titrate with silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS slowly until a yellowish white opalescence is produced. Each ml of silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS is equivalent to 91.48mg of C20 H27 NO11. It contains not less than 3.0% of amygdalin (C20 H27 NO11).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, break to pieces before use.Semen Armeniacae Amarum (rinse in boiling water): Peel as described under the method for rinsing in boiling water (Appendix ll D). Break to pieces before use.Stir fried: Stir fry the rinsed Semen Armeniacae Amarum as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until it becomes yellow. Break to piece before use.

Action  : To relieve cough and asthma, and to relax bowels.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 4.5 to 9 g, to be added when the decoction is nearly done.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

P262 1.jpg
Tcm p52 0028.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Prunus armeniaca

Prunus armeniaca in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Kuxingren ¿àÐÓÈÊ Xingrenni ÐÓÈÊÄà Chinese Name (pinyin): Xingren

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Bitter Apricot Kernel

Specific Name  : Semen Armeniacae Amarum

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fruit is collected in summer and the seed is remove from the pulp and the shell and dried in the sun.

Description  : Flattened cordate, 1 - 11.9cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm wide, 5 - 8mm thick. Externally yellowish brown to deep brown, acute at one end, plump and un-symetrical and rounded at the other end. A short linear hilum situated at the acute end and a chalaza at the rounded end with numerous upward deep brown veins. Testa thin, cotyledons 2, milky white, oily, odorless and taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Grind several grains of the drug with water, a characteristic odor of benzaldehyde is perceptible.2.Break several grains of the drug to pieces and immediately place about 0.11g into a test tube, moistened with several drops of water, hang a strip of trinitrophenol TP and stopper tightly. Heat on a warm water bath for 10 minutes, the test paper turns to a brick red color.3.To 1g, add 50ml of ether, heat under reflux for 1 hour and discard the ether solution. Wash the residue with ether, evaporate to dryness and 30ml of methanol and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool to room temperature, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve a quantity of amygdalin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the lower layer of chloroform ethyl acetate-methanol-water (15: 40: 22: 10) on standing at 5 - 10ºC for 12 hours as the mobile phase. After developing and removal of the plate, spray immediately with a solution of phosphomolybdic acid in sulfuric acid (to 2g of phosphomolybdic acid, add 20ml of water to dissolve. Add slowly 30ml of sulfuric acid and mix well). Heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Place 15g of the coarse powder, accurately weighed in a kjeldahl flask, add 150ml of water. Stopper tightly and immediately, allow to stand for 2 hours. Connect the condenser and distill. Collect the distillate in a receiver containing 10ml of water and 2 ml of ammonia TS. Cool on an ice bath until it shows no reaction characteristic of hydrocyanic acid (to 2ml of ditillate, adjust alkaline with sodium hydroxide TS and several drops of trinitropanol TS and no red color is produced). Stop the distillation, add 2ml of potassium iodide TS to the distillate and titrate with silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS slowly until a yellowish white opalescence is produced. Each ml of silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS is equivalent to 91.48mg of C20 H27 NO11. It contains not less than 3.0% of amygdalin (C20 H27 NO11).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, break to pieces before use.Semen Armeniacae Amarum (rinse in boiling water): Peel as described under the method for rinsing in boiling water (Appendix ll D). Break to pieces before use.Stir fried: Stir fry the rinsed Semen Armeniacae Amarum as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until it becomes yellow. Break to piece before use.

Action  :

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 6-10g

Storage  :

P262 1.jpg
Tcm p52 0028.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Prunus armeniaca

Prunus armeniaca in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Kuxingren

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Bitter apricot seed

Specific Name  : Semen armeniacae amarum

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fruit is collected in summer and the seed is remove from the pulp and the shell and dried in the sun.

Description  : Flattened cordate, 1 - 11.9cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm wide, 5 - 8mm thick. Externally yellowish brown to deep brown, acute at one end, plump and un-symetrical and rounded at the other end. A short linear hilum situated at the acute end and a chalaza at the rounded end with numerous upward deep brown veins. Testa thin, cotyledons 2, milky white, oily, odorless and taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Grind several grains of the drug with water, a characteristic odor of benzaldehyde is perceptible.2.Break several grains of the drug to pieces and immediately place about 0.11g into a test tube, moistened with several drops of water, hang a strip of trinitrophenol TP and stopper tightly. Heat on a warm water bath for 10 minutes, the test paper turns to a brick red color.3.To 1g, add 50ml of ether, heat under reflux for 1 hour and discard the ether solution. Wash the residue with ether, evaporate to dryness and 30ml of methanol and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool to room temperature, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve a quantity of amygdalin CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the lower layer of chloroform ethyl acetate-methanol-water (15: 40: 22: 10) on standing at 5 - 10ºC for 12 hours as the mobile phase. After developing and removal of the plate, spray immediately with a solution of phosphomolybdic acid in sulfuric acid (to 2g of phosphomolybdic acid, add 20ml of water to dissolve. Add slowly 30ml of sulfuric acid and mix well). Heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Place 15g of the coarse powder, accurately weighed in a kjeldahl flask, add 150ml of water. Stopper tightly and immediately, allow to stand for 2 hours. Connect the condenser and distill. Collect the distillate in a receiver containing 10ml of water and 2 ml of ammonia TS. Cool on an ice bath until it shows no reaction characteristic of hydrocyanic acid (to 2ml of ditillate, adjust alkaline with sodium hydroxide TS and several drops of trinitropanol TS and no red color is produced). Stop the distillation, add 2ml of potassium iodide TS to the distillate and titrate with silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS slowly until a yellowish white opalescence is produced. Each ml of silver nitrate (0.1 mol/L) VS is equivalent to 91.48mg of C20 H27 NO11. It contains not less than 3.0% of amygdalin (C20 H27 NO11).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, break to pieces before use.Semen Armeniacae Amarum (rinse in boiling water): Peel as described under the method for rinsing in boiling water (Appendix ll D). Break to pieces before use.Stir fried: Stir fry the rinsed Semen Armeniacae Amarum as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until it becomes yellow. Break to piece before use.

Action  : To relieve cough and asthma, and to relax bowels.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 4.5 to 9 g, to be added when the decoction is nearly done.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Prunus armeniaca

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Prunus armeniaca

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Prunus armeniaca in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Justin D Tanner, Ioannis S Minas, Katheryn Y Chen, Maria M Jenderek, Stephen J Wallner
Antimicrobial forcing solution improves recovery of cryopreserved temperate fruit tree dormant buds.
Cryobiology: 2020;
[PubMed:32004576] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Jia Liu, Jia Lin Deng, Yun Tian
Transcriptome sequencing of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and identification of differentially expressed genes involved in drought stress.
Phytochemistry: 2020, 171;112226
[PubMed:31923721] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Gloria De Mori, Rachele Falchi, Raffaele Testolin, Daniele Bassi, Federica Savazzini, Luca Dondini, Stefano Tartarini, Francesco Palmisano, Angelantonio Minafra, Alessandro Spadotto, Simone Scalabrin, Filippo Geuna
Resistance to Sharka in Apricot: Comparison of Phase-Reconstructed Resistant and Susceptible Haplotypes of 'Lito' Chromosome 1 and Analysis of Candidate Genes.
Front Plant Sci: 2019, 10;1576
[PubMed:31867032] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Fengchao Jiang, Junhuan Zhang, Sen Wang, Li Yang, Yingfeng Luo, Shenghan Gao, Meiling Zhang, Shuangyang Wu, Songnian Hu, Haoyuan Sun, Yuzhu Wang
##Title##
Hortic Res: 2019, 6;128
[PubMed:31754435] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Lina Zhang, Qiuyun Zhang, Wenhui Li, Shikui Zhang, Wanpeng Xi
Identification of key genes and regulators associated with carotenoid metabolism in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) fruit using weighted gene coexpression network analysis.
BMC Genomics: 2019, 20(1);876
[PubMed:31747897] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects