Prunella vulgaris

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Prunella vulgaris

Prunella vulgaris in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Chinese Name (pinyin): Xiakucao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Prunella Spike

Specific Name  : Spica prunellae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in summer when the spike becomes brownish red, removed from foreign matter and dried in the sun.

Description  : Clavate, somewhat flattened, 1.5 - 8cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm in diameter, pale brown to brownish red. The whole spike composed of up to 10 or more whorls of persistent calyx and bracts, which whorl with two opposite bracts, fan shaped, apex acuminate, striations of vein distinct, outer surface with white hairs. Each bract with three flowers, the corolla often fallen off, persistent calyx bilabiate with four small brown ovoid nutlets with white convex at the acute end. Texture light, odour slight and taste weak.

Identification  : 1.To 1g of the powder add 15 ml of ethanol, heat under reflux for 1 hour and filter. Transfer 1 ml of the filtrate to an evaporating dish, evaporate to dryness on a water bath, dissolve the residue in 1 drop of acetic anhydride and a quantity of sulfuric acid a purple color is produced, turning to dark green gradually.2.Apply a small amount of the filtrate obtained under Identification test (1) to a piece of filter paper, spray with a mixture of equal volumes of 0.9% ferric chloride solution and 0.6% potassium ferricyanide solution, a blue spot is produced.3.Heat under reflux 1g of the powder in 20ml of ethanol for 1 hour, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Macerate the residue with 2 quantities each of 15ml of petroleum ether (30- 60ºC) for about 2 minutes. Discard the petroleum ether solution and dissolve the residue in 1ml ethanol to test solution. Dissolve ursolic acid CRS in ethanol to produce a solution containing 1 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix V1 B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and cyclohexane-cholorofrom-ethyl, acetate glacial acetic acid (20:5:8: 0.5) as the mobile phase. Apple separately to the plate 2 µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol, heat at 100ºC until the spots clear. Examine under ultra violet light and day light (365 nm) respectively. The spot or fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Processing  :

Action  : To quench fire of the liver and counteract inflammation of the eye, and to reduce nodulation and induce subsidence of swelling.

Indication  : inflammation of the eye, eye pain at night, headache and dizziness; scrofula, goitre, mastitis with swelling and pain, hyperplasia of breast; hypertension

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 9 to 15 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place.

Synonymns for Prunella vulgaris

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Prunella vulgaris

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Prunella vulgaris in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Xinlin Chen, Shang Xue, Yaolan Lin, Jianguang Luo, Lingyi Kong
Immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase onto a metal-organic framework, PPL@MOF: A new platform for efficient ligand discovery from natural herbs.
Anal. Chim. Acta: 2020, 1099;94-102
[PubMed:31986282] [] [DOI] (I p)

Jun Kim, Kyoungwon Cho, Se-Young Choung
Protective effect of Prunella vulgaris var. L extract against blue light induced damages in ARPE-19 cells and mouse retina.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.: 2019;
[PubMed:31811921] [] [DOI] (I a)

Bokyung Koo, Ho Jung Bae, Nayeon Goo, Jaehoon Kim, Jihyun Kim, Mudan Cai, In Ho Jung, Kyungnam Cho, Seo Yun Jung, Suk Woo Chang, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
A botanical drug composed of three herbal materials attenuates the sensorimotor gating deficit and cognitive impairment induced by MK-801 in mice.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.: 2020, 72(1);149-160
[PubMed:31713882] [] [DOI] (I p)

Caijuan Liang, Jintuo Yin, Yinling Ma, Xia Zhang, Lantong Zhang
Quantitative determination of characteristic components from compound of Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim. by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J Pharm Biomed Anal: 2020, 177;112835
[PubMed:31499428] [] [DOI] (I p)

Bo-Yang Li, Yang Hu, Jian Li, Kai Shi, Yu-Feng Shen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Ursolic acid from Prunella vulgaris L. efficiently inhibits IHNV infection in vitro and in vivo.
Virus Res.: 2019, 273;197741
[PubMed:31494148] [] [DOI] (I p)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects