Poncirus trifoliata

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Poncirus trifoliata

Poncirus trifoliata in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Chaozhishi ³´è×ʵ Xiaozhishi Сè×ʵ Chinese Name (pinyin): Zhishi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Immature Bitter Orange

Specific Name  : Fructus aurantii immaturus

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fallen fruit is collected in May and June, removed from foreign matter, cut transversely in the middle into two parts, dried in the sun or at low temperature. The small fruit dried similarly without cutting.

Description  : Semispheroidal, few spheroidal, 0.5 - 2.5cm in diameter. Exocartp dark green or dark brownish green with glandular protrudings and wrinkles, remains of the style or fruit stalk scar distinct, mesocarp in transverse section slightly expanded, yellowish white or yellowish brown, 3.0 - 1.2cm thick with 1 - 2 rows of oil cavities on the outer part, endocarp and juice vesicles brown. Texture hard, odor aromatic, taste bitter and slightly sour.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Pale yellow or brownish yellow. Cells of mesocarp subrounded or irregular, most cell walls unevenly thickened and beaded. Epidermal cells of pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular in surface view, stomata subrounded, 18 - 26µm in diameter, subsidiary cells 5 - 9, covered with cuticle in lateral view. Prisms of calcium oxalate existing cells of pericarp and juice vesicles mostly visible in cells adjacent to epidermis, rhombic, polygonal or biconical, 2 - 24µm in diameter. Parenchymatous cells containing yellow or colorless hesperidin crystals in rounded or amorphous masses some with radial striations. Fragments of oil cavity abundant, secretory cells slender and curved. Spiral and reticulated vessels and tracheids small.2.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 10ml of methanol under reflux for 10 minutes and filter. To 1ml of the filtrate add about 5mg of potassium tetrahydroborate, mix well and add several drops of hydrochloric acid, a cherry red to purplish red colour is produced. 3.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 5ml of methanol under reflux for 1 hour. Allow to cool, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 4ml of methanol and filtrate, use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve synephrine CRS in methanol to prepare solution containing 3mg per ml, use as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel H with sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the coating substance and methanol-acetone-chloroform-concentrated ammonia TS (3:4:13:0.5) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 10µl of each of the two solution to the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 0.5% solution of ninhydrin in ethanol and heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in p[osition and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Total ash: not more than 7.0%

Processing  : Immature Orange fruit, eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry.Stir fry with bran: stir fry the slices as describe under the method for stir frying with bran until deep color is produced.

Action  : To eliminate stagnation of qi, resolve phlegm and relieve stuffiness sensation in the chest and abdomen.

Indication  :

Precautions  : Used with caution in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Poncirus trifoliata

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Poncirus trifoliata

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Poncirus trifoliata in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Lin Meng, Qinghua Zhang, Jun Yang, Guosheng Xie, Ji-Hong Liu
PtrCDPK10 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in dehydration and drought tolerance by reducing ROS accumulation via phosphorylating PtrAPX.
Plant Sci.: 2020, 291;110320
[PubMed:31928664] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Tiantian Dong, Bo Xiong, Shengjia Huang, Ling Liao, Xia Qiu, Guochao Sun, Yunzhenzi He, Changwen Duan, Xiaojia Wang, Xu Zhang, Sichen Li, Jin Zhu, Zhihui Wang
Investigation of the cause of reduced sugar content in Kiyomi tangor fruit of Ziyang xiangcheng (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) rootstock.
Sci Rep: 2019, 9(1);19263
[PubMed:31848437] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Heros J Maximo, Ronaldo J D Dalio, Renata O Dias, Celso G Litholdo, Henrique L Felizatti, Marcos A Machado
PpCRN7 and PpCRN20 of Phythophthora parasitica regulate plant cell death leading to enhancement of host susceptibility.
BMC Plant Biol.: 2019, 19(1);544
[PubMed:31810451] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Gao-Feng Zhou, Li-Ping Zhang, Bi-Xian Li, Ou Sheng, Qing-Jiang Wei, Feng-Xian Yao, Guan Guan, Gui-Dong Liu
Int J Mol Sci: 2019, 20(21);
[PubMed:31683503] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Shih-Hua Tan, Fatima Osman, Sohrab Bodaghi, Tyler Dang, Greg Greer, Amy Huang, Sarah Hammado, Shurooq Abu-Hajar, Roya Campos, Georgios Vidalakis
Full genome characterization of 12 citrus tatter leaf virus isolates for the development of a detection assay.
PLoS ONE: 2019, 14(10);e0223958
[PubMed:31622412] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects