Polygonum cuspidatum

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P269 1.jpg
Tcm257.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Polygonum cuspidatum

Polygonum cuspidatum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Huzhang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Giant Knotweed rhizome

Specific Name  : Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, removed from rootlet, washed clean, cut into short section or thick slice when fresh and dried in the sun.

Description  : Mostly in cylindrical short sections or irregular thick slices, 1 - 7 cm long, 0.5 - 2.5 cm in diameter, externally brown, showing longitudinal wrinkles and rootlets scars. In transversely cut surface, bark relatively thin, wood broad, yellowish brown with radial rays. Easily separated from wood. Pith in a rhizome septated or hollowed. Texture hard, odor slight, taste slightly bitter and astringent.

Identification  : 1.Macerate 5g of the powder in 25 ml of ethanol for 2 hours, filter evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Stir the residue well with about 5ml of water. Extract the supernatant liquid with 10 ml of chloroform, evaporate the chloroform solution to dryness. Add 2 drops of sodium hydroxide TS to residue, a cherry red color is produced.2.Extract the aqueous solution obtained after extracting with chloroform under Identification test (1) with 10 ml of ethyl acetate, evaporate the ethyl acetate solution to dryness. Add about 5 ml of water to residue, extract with 5 ml of ether. Evaporate the ether solution to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of ethanol. Apply the ethanol solution to filter paper. Dry it in the air and examine under ultra violet light (365 nm), a bright blue fluorescence is shown. To the above aqueous solution, add 2 drops of ferric chloride TS, a dull green color is produced.3.To 0.11 g of the powder, add 10 ml of methanol, ultrasonicate for 15 minutes, filter and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Hydrolyze the residue by adding 5 ml of 2.5 mol/L sulfuric acid solution and heating for 30 minutes. Allow to cool and extract with 2 quantities, each 5ml of chloroform. Combine the extract of chloroform and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of chloroform as the test solution. To emodin CRS and physcion CRS, add methanol separately to prepare solution containing 1 mg of each per ml as the reference solutions. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the upper layer of petroleum ether-ethyl formiate-formic acid (15:5:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 4`µl of the test solution and 1 µl of the reference solution to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Examine under ultra violet light (365 nm), the orange fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. After fumigating to ammonia vapor, examine under daylight the spots turn to red.Assay: Standard preparation: Weigh accurately 10 mg of emodin CRS in 100 ml volumetric flask. Dissolve in methanol and dilute to volume, mix well and used as the standard solution (containing 0.1 mg of emodin per ml.Test preparation: Weigh accurately 0.5g of the powder (through No. 3 sieve) [perform the determination of loss in drying at 105ºC] in a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add 90 ml of methanol, ultrasonicate (power 250 W, frequence 300 Hz) for 30 minutes, allow to cool to room temperature and dilute with methanol to volume. Shake thoroughly, filter and discard the initial filtrate, measure accurately 10 ml of the successive filtrate to 100ml rounded-bottom flask. After evaporating of the methanol, add 20 ml of 2.5mol/L sulfuric acid solution. Heat under reflux for 2 hours. Allow to cool. Transfer to a separator, wash the container with quantity of chloroform and combine to the separator. Separate the chloroform layer to a 50 ml volumetric flask. Extract the acidic solution with 2 quantities each of 8 ml of chloroform combine the extract to the flask, dilute with chloroform to volume, mix well and used as the test solution.Procedure: Measure accurately 2 and 3 ml of the standard solution, 10 ml of the test solution and evaporate to dryness. Add accurately 20 ml of a mixture of equal quantities of 2% ammonia and 5% sodium hydroxide solution, filter sintered glass filter No. 3. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry (Appendix V B). Measure the absorbance of the successive filtrate, taking the reagent solution as a blank at 520nm and calculate. It contains not less than 1.5% of total anthraquinone calculated as emodin (C15 H10O5) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry.

Action  : To dispel wind and damp, to eliminate blood stasis and alleviate pain, to relieve cough, and to resolve phlegm.

Indication  : arthalgia; jaundice caused by damp-heat; amenorrhea; mass formation in the abdomen; cough with profuse expectoration; scalds and burns; traumatic injuries; carbuncles and sores

Precautions  : Used with caution in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 9 to 15 g; for external use, appropriate quntity to be made into decoction or ointment and applied topically.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry plae, protected from mould and moth.

P269 1.jpg
Tcm257.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Polygonum cuspidatum

Polygonum cuspidatum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Huzhang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Giant Knotweed rhizome

Specific Name  : Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, removed from rootlet, washed clean, cut into short section or thick slice when fresh and dried in the sun.

Description  : Mostly in cylindrical short sections or irregular thick slices, 1 - 7 cm long, 0.5 - 2.5 cm in diameter, externally brown, showing longitudinal wrinkles and rootlets scars. In transversely cut surface, bark relatively thin, wood broad, yellowish brown with radial rays. Easily separated from wood. Pith in a rhizome septated or hollowed. Texture hard, odor slight, taste slightly bitter and astringent.

Identification  : 1.Macerate 5g of the powder in 25 ml of ethanol for 2 hours, filter evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Stir the residue well with about 5ml of water. Extract the supernatant liquid with 10 ml of chloroform, evaporate the chloroform solution to dryness. Add 2 drops of sodium hydroxide TS to residue, a cherry red color is produced.2.Extract the aqueous solution obtained after extracting with chloroform under Identification test (1) with 10 ml of ethyl acetate, evaporate the ethyl acetate solution to dryness. Add about 5 ml of water to residue, extract with 5 ml of ether. Evaporate the ether solution to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of ethanol. Apply the ethanol solution to filter paper. Dry it in the air and examine under ultra violet light (365 nm), a bright blue fluorescence is shown. To the above aqueous solution, add 2 drops of ferric chloride TS, a dull green color is produced.3.To 0.11 g of the powder, add 10 ml of methanol, ultrasonicate for 15 minutes, filter and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Hydrolyze the residue by adding 5 ml of 2.5 mol/L sulfuric acid solution and heating for 30 minutes. Allow to cool and extract with 2 quantities, each 5ml of chloroform. Combine the extract of chloroform and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of chloroform as the test solution. To emodin CRS and physcion CRS, add methanol separately to prepare solution containing 1 mg of each per ml as the reference solutions. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and the upper layer of petroleum ether-ethyl formiate-formic acid (15:5:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 4`µl of the test solution and 1 µl of the reference solution to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Examine under ultra violet light (365 nm), the orange fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. After fumigating to ammonia vapor, examine under daylight the spots turn to red.Assay: Standard preparation: Weigh accurately 10 mg of emodin CRS in 100 ml volumetric flask. Dissolve in methanol and dilute to volume, mix well and used as the standard solution (containing 0.1 mg of emodin per ml.Test preparation: Weigh accurately 0.5g of the powder (through No. 3 sieve) [perform the determination of loss in drying at 105ºC] in a 100 ml volumetric flask. Add 90 ml of methanol, ultrasonicate (power 250 W, frequence 300 Hz) for 30 minutes, allow to cool to room temperature and dilute with methanol to volume. Shake thoroughly, filter and discard the initial filtrate, measure accurately 10 ml of the successive filtrate to 100ml rounded-bottom flask. After evaporating of the methanol, add 20 ml of 2.5mol/L sulfuric acid solution. Heat under reflux for 2 hours. Allow to cool. Transfer to a separator, wash the container with quantity of chloroform and combine to the separator. Separate the chloroform layer to a 50 ml volumetric flask. Extract the acidic solution with 2 quantities each of 8 ml of chloroform combine the extract to the flask, dilute with chloroform to volume, mix well and used as the test solution.Procedure: Measure accurately 2 and 3 ml of the standard solution, 10 ml of the test solution and evaporate to dryness. Add accurately 20 ml of a mixture of equal quantities of 2% ammonia and 5% sodium hydroxide solution, filter sintered glass filter No. 3. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry (Appendix V B). Measure the absorbance of the successive filtrate, taking the reagent solution as a blank at 520nm and calculate. It contains not less than 1.5% of total anthraquinone calculated as emodin (C15 H10O5) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry.

Action  : To dispel wind and damp, to eliminate blood stasis and alleviate pain, to relieve cough, and to resolve phlegm.

Indication  : arthalgia; jaundice caused by damp-heat; amenorrhea; mass formation in the abdomen; cough with profuse expectoration; scalds and burns; traumatic injuries; carbuncles and sores

Precautions  : Used with caution in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 9 to 15 g; for external use, appropriate quntity to be made into decoction or ointment and applied topically.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry plae, protected from mould and moth.

Synonymns for Polygonum cuspidatum

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Polygonum cuspidatum

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Polygonum cuspidatum in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Bongkyun Park, Kyuhyung Jo, Tae Gu Lee, Ik Soo Lee, Jin Sook Kim, Chan-Sik Kim
Polygonum cuspidatum stem extract (PSE) ameliorates dry eye disease by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis.
J Exerc Nutrition Biochem: 2019, 23(4);14-22
[PubMed:32018341] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Yuming Zhang, Yajing Li, Qin Feng, Menghua Shao, Fengyu Yuan, Fengsong Liu
Polydatin attenuates cadmium-induced oxidative stress via stimulating SOD activity and regulating mitochondrial function in Musca domestica larvae.
Chemosphere: 2020, 248;126009
[PubMed:32000039] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Maja Bensa, Vesna Glavnik, Irena Vovk
Leaves of Invasive Plants-Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed-The Promising New Source of Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins.
Plants (Basel): 2020, 9(1);
[PubMed:31963589] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Guorong Cheng, Zifeng Pi, Zhong Zheng, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Fengrui Song
Magnetic nanoparticles-based lactate dehydrogenase microreactor as a drug discovery tool for rapid screening inhibitors from natural products.
Talanta: 2020, 209;120554
[PubMed:31892010] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Dae-Hye Choi, Joon-Hee Han, Keun-Hyung Yu, Min Hong, Sun-Yeop Lee, Ka-Hee Park, Soo-Ung Lee, Tae-Hyung Kwon
##Title##
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.: 2020, 30(1);21-30
[PubMed:31838799] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects