Piper nigrum

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P304 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Piper nigrum

Piper nigrum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Baihujiao °×ºú½· Chinese Name (pinyin): Hujiao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Pepper

Specific Name  : Fructus Piperis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in late autumn to next spring when the fruit is dark green, dried in the sun, known as "Black Pepper". The drug is collected when the fruit is red, moisten for several days, removed from sarcocarp dried in the sun, known as "White Pepper"

Description  : Black Pepper: spheroidal, 3.5 - 5mm in diameter. Externally blackish brown, with raised reticulated wrinkles bearing a fine remains of style at the apex and scar of fruit axes at the base. Texture hard, exocarp can be stripped. Endocarp greyish white or pale yellow. Frauture yellowish-white, starchy, possessing a small space at the center. Odor aromatic and taste pungent.White Pepper: Externally greyish-white or pale yellow-white, smooth with numerous pale colored linear striations between apex and base.

Identification  : 1.Powder of black pepper: dark grey, stone cells of exocarp subsquare, rectangular or irregular, 19 - 66µm in diameter, walls relatively thickened. Stone cells of endocarp subpolygonal in surface view, 20 - 30µm in diameter, square in lateral view, one side of the walls thin. Cells of testa brown, polygonal with beaded walls. Oil cells relatively less, subrounded, 51 - 75µm in diameter. Starch granules small often grouped.2.To a little of the powder add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a red color is produced turning to reddish brown color gradually and then to a dark brown color.3.To 0.5g of the powder 5ml of dehydrated ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve piperine CRS in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 4mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate-acetone (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solutions to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate , dry it in the air. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat under a current of hot air to the spot distinct. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D).Chromatographic system and system suitability: use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol-water (77:23) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector 343nm. The number of theoretical plates of the coulmn is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of piperine. The resolution factor between the peaks of piperine and the internal standard complies with the related requirements.Internal standard solution: dissolve quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 0.5mg per ml as the internal standard substance.Procedure: dissolve a quantity of piperine CRS, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml. Measure accurately 2ml of each of the above solution and the internal standard solution to a 25ml amber volumetric flask. Dilute the dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, calculate the correction factor, weigh accurately 0.25g of drug powder in a 100ml amber volumetric flask, add 80ml of dehydrated ethanol and ultrasonicate (power not less than 150W; frequence not less than 12 kHz) for at least 30 minutes, allow to stand to room temperature, dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume. Shake thoroughly. Measure accurately 20ml of the filtrate and 2ml of the internal standard solution in an amber volumetric flask and dilute with a dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, measure the peak area and calculate the content with corrected internal standard method. It contains not less than 3.0% of piperine (C17 H19 O3 N).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to fine powder before use.

Action  : To dispel cold from the stomach, and to eliminate phlegm.

Indication  : vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia due to cold in the stomach; epilepsy with much phlegm

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.6 to 1.5 g, to be ground into powder for oral administration; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

P304 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Piper nigrum

Piper nigrum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Baihujiao °×ºú½· Chinese Name (pinyin): Hujiao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Pepper

Specific Name  : Fructus Piperis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in late autumn to next spring when the fruit is dark green, dried in the sun, known as "Black Pepper". The drug is collected when the fruit is red, moisten for several days, removed from sarcocarp dried in the sun, known as "White Pepper"

Description  : Black Pepper: spheroidal, 3.5 - 5mm in diameter. Externally blackish brown, with raised reticulated wrinkles bearing a fine remains of style at the apex and scar of fruit axes at the base. Texture hard, exocarp can be stripped. Endocarp greyish white or pale yellow. Frauture yellowish-white, starchy, possessing a small space at the center. Odor aromatic and taste pungent.White Pepper: Externally greyish-white or pale yellow-white, smooth with numerous pale colored linear striations between apex and base.

Identification  : 1.Powder of black pepper: dark grey, stone cells of exocarp subsquare, rectangular or irregular, 19 - 66µm in diameter, walls relatively thickened. Stone cells of endocarp subpolygonal in surface view, 20 - 30µm in diameter, square in lateral view, one side of the walls thin. Cells of testa brown, polygonal with beaded walls. Oil cells relatively less, subrounded, 51 - 75µm in diameter. Starch granules small often grouped.2.To a little of the powder add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a red color is produced turning to reddish brown color gradually and then to a dark brown color.3.To 0.5g of the powder 5ml of dehydrated ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve piperine CRS in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 4mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate-acetone (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solutions to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate , dry it in the air. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat under a current of hot air to the spot distinct. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D).Chromatographic system and system suitability: use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol-water (77:23) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector 343nm. The number of theoretical plates of the coulmn is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of piperine. The resolution factor between the peaks of piperine and the internal standard complies with the related requirements.Internal standard solution: dissolve quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 0.5mg per ml as the internal standard substance.Procedure: dissolve a quantity of piperine CRS, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml. Measure accurately 2ml of each of the above solution and the internal standard solution to a 25ml amber volumetric flask. Dilute the dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, calculate the correction factor, weigh accurately 0.25g of drug powder in a 100ml amber volumetric flask, add 80ml of dehydrated ethanol and ultrasonicate (power not less than 150W; frequence not less than 12 kHz) for at least 30 minutes, allow to stand to room temperature, dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume. Shake thoroughly. Measure accurately 20ml of the filtrate and 2ml of the internal standard solution in an amber volumetric flask and dilute with a dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, measure the peak area and calculate the content with corrected internal standard method. It contains not less than 3.0% of piperine (C17 H19 O3 N).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to fine powder before use.

Action  : To dispel cold from the stomach, and to eliminate phlegm.

Indication  : vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia due to cold in the stomach; epilepsy with much phlegm

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.6 to 1.5 g, to be ground into powder for oral administration; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

P304 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Piper nigrum

Piper nigrum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Baihujiao °×ºú½· Chinese Name (pinyin): Hujiao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Pepper

Specific Name  : Fructus Piperis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in late autumn to next spring when the fruit is dark green, dried in the sun, known as "Black Pepper". The drug is collected when the fruit is red, moisten for several days, removed from sarcocarp dried in the sun, known as "White Pepper"

Description  : Black Pepper: spheroidal, 3.5 - 5mm in diameter. Externally blackish brown, with raised reticulated wrinkles bearing a fine remains of style at the apex and scar of fruit axes at the base. Texture hard, exocarp can be stripped. Endocarp greyish white or pale yellow. Frauture yellowish-white, starchy, possessing a small space at the center. Odor aromatic and taste pungent.White Pepper: Externally greyish-white or pale yellow-white, smooth with numerous pale colored linear striations between apex and base.

Identification  : 1.Powder of black pepper: dark grey, stone cells of exocarp subsquare, rectangular or irregular, 19 - 66µm in diameter, walls relatively thickened. Stone cells of endocarp subpolygonal in surface view, 20 - 30µm in diameter, square in lateral view, one side of the walls thin. Cells of testa brown, polygonal with beaded walls. Oil cells relatively less, subrounded, 51 - 75µm in diameter. Starch granules small often grouped.2.To a little of the powder add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a red color is produced turning to reddish brown color gradually and then to a dark brown color.3.To 0.5g of the powder 5ml of dehydrated ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve piperine CRS in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 4mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate-acetone (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solutions to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate , dry it in the air. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat under a current of hot air to the spot distinct. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D).Chromatographic system and system suitability: use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol-water (77:23) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector 343nm. The number of theoretical plates of the coulmn is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of piperine. The resolution factor between the peaks of piperine and the internal standard complies with the related requirements.Internal standard solution: dissolve quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 0.5mg per ml as the internal standard substance.Procedure: dissolve a quantity of piperine CRS, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml. Measure accurately 2ml of each of the above solution and the internal standard solution to a 25ml amber volumetric flask. Dilute the dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, calculate the correction factor, weigh accurately 0.25g of drug powder in a 100ml amber volumetric flask, add 80ml of dehydrated ethanol and ultrasonicate (power not less than 150W; frequence not less than 12 kHz) for at least 30 minutes, allow to stand to room temperature, dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume. Shake thoroughly. Measure accurately 20ml of the filtrate and 2ml of the internal standard solution in an amber volumetric flask and dilute with a dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, measure the peak area and calculate the content with corrected internal standard method. It contains not less than 3.0% of piperine (C17 H19 O3 N).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to fine powder before use.

Action  : To dispel cold from the stomach, and to eliminate phlegm.

Indication  : vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia due to cold in the stomach; epilepsy with much phlegm

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.6 to 1.5 g, to be ground into powder for oral administration; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

P304 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Piper nigrum

Piper nigrum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Baihujiao °×ºú½· Chinese Name (pinyin): Hujiao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Pepper

Specific Name  : Fructus Piperis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in late autumn to next spring when the fruit is dark green, dried in the sun, known as "Black Pepper". The drug is collected when the fruit is red, moisten for several days, removed from sarcocarp dried in the sun, known as "White Pepper"

Description  : Black Pepper: spheroidal, 3.5 - 5mm in diameter. Externally blackish brown, with raised reticulated wrinkles bearing a fine remains of style at the apex and scar of fruit axes at the base. Texture hard, exocarp can be stripped. Endocarp greyish white or pale yellow. Frauture yellowish-white, starchy, possessing a small space at the center. Odor aromatic and taste pungent.White Pepper: Externally greyish-white or pale yellow-white, smooth with numerous pale colored linear striations between apex and base.

Identification  : 1.Powder of black pepper: dark grey, stone cells of exocarp subsquare, rectangular or irregular, 19 - 66µm in diameter, walls relatively thickened. Stone cells of endocarp subpolygonal in surface view, 20 - 30µm in diameter, square in lateral view, one side of the walls thin. Cells of testa brown, polygonal with beaded walls. Oil cells relatively less, subrounded, 51 - 75µm in diameter. Starch granules small often grouped.2.To a little of the powder add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a red color is produced turning to reddish brown color gradually and then to a dark brown color.3.To 0.5g of the powder 5ml of dehydrated ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve piperine CRS in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 4mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate-acetone (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solutions to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate , dry it in the air. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat under a current of hot air to the spot distinct. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D).Chromatographic system and system suitability: use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol-water (77:23) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector 343nm. The number of theoretical plates of the coulmn is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of piperine. The resolution factor between the peaks of piperine and the internal standard complies with the related requirements.Internal standard solution: dissolve quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 0.5mg per ml as the internal standard substance.Procedure: dissolve a quantity of piperine CRS, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml. Measure accurately 2ml of each of the above solution and the internal standard solution to a 25ml amber volumetric flask. Dilute the dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, calculate the correction factor, weigh accurately 0.25g of drug powder in a 100ml amber volumetric flask, add 80ml of dehydrated ethanol and ultrasonicate (power not less than 150W; frequence not less than 12 kHz) for at least 30 minutes, allow to stand to room temperature, dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume. Shake thoroughly. Measure accurately 20ml of the filtrate and 2ml of the internal standard solution in an amber volumetric flask and dilute with a dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, measure the peak area and calculate the content with corrected internal standard method. It contains not less than 3.0% of piperine (C17 H19 O3 N).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to fine powder before use.

Action  : To dispel cold from the stomach, and to eliminate phlegm.

Indication  : vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia due to cold in the stomach; epilepsy with much phlegm

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.6 to 1.5 g, to be ground into powder for oral administration; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

P304 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Piper nigrum

Piper nigrum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Baihujiao °×ºú½· Chinese Name (pinyin): Hujiao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Pepper

Specific Name  : Fructus Piperis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in late autumn to next spring when the fruit is dark green, dried in the sun, known as "Black Pepper". The drug is collected when the fruit is red, moisten for several days, removed from sarcocarp dried in the sun, known as "White Pepper"

Description  : Black Pepper: spheroidal, 3.5 - 5mm in diameter. Externally blackish brown, with raised reticulated wrinkles bearing a fine remains of style at the apex and scar of fruit axes at the base. Texture hard, exocarp can be stripped. Endocarp greyish white or pale yellow. Frauture yellowish-white, starchy, possessing a small space at the center. Odor aromatic and taste pungent.White Pepper: Externally greyish-white or pale yellow-white, smooth with numerous pale colored linear striations between apex and base.

Identification  : 1.Powder of black pepper: dark grey, stone cells of exocarp subsquare, rectangular or irregular, 19 - 66µm in diameter, walls relatively thickened. Stone cells of endocarp subpolygonal in surface view, 20 - 30µm in diameter, square in lateral view, one side of the walls thin. Cells of testa brown, polygonal with beaded walls. Oil cells relatively less, subrounded, 51 - 75µm in diameter. Starch granules small often grouped.2.To a little of the powder add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a red color is produced turning to reddish brown color gradually and then to a dark brown color.3.To 0.5g of the powder 5ml of dehydrated ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve piperine CRS in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 4mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate-acetone (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solutions to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate , dry it in the air. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat under a current of hot air to the spot distinct. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D).Chromatographic system and system suitability: use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol-water (77:23) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector 343nm. The number of theoretical plates of the coulmn is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of piperine. The resolution factor between the peaks of piperine and the internal standard complies with the related requirements.Internal standard solution: dissolve quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 0.5mg per ml as the internal standard substance.Procedure: dissolve a quantity of piperine CRS, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml. Measure accurately 2ml of each of the above solution and the internal standard solution to a 25ml amber volumetric flask. Dilute the dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, calculate the correction factor, weigh accurately 0.25g of drug powder in a 100ml amber volumetric flask, add 80ml of dehydrated ethanol and ultrasonicate (power not less than 150W; frequence not less than 12 kHz) for at least 30 minutes, allow to stand to room temperature, dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume. Shake thoroughly. Measure accurately 20ml of the filtrate and 2ml of the internal standard solution in an amber volumetric flask and dilute with a dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, measure the peak area and calculate the content with corrected internal standard method. It contains not less than 3.0% of piperine (C17 H19 O3 N).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to fine powder before use.

Action  : To dispel cold from the stomach, and to eliminate phlegm.

Indication  : vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia due to cold in the stomach; epilepsy with much phlegm

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.6 to 1.5 g, to be ground into powder for oral administration; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

Synonymns for Piper nigrum

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Piper nigrum

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Piper nigrum in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Leonardo Cristian Favre, Guido Rolandelli, Ndumiso Mshicileli, Lusani Norah Vhangani, Cristina Dos Santos Ferreira, Jessy van Wyk, María Del Pilar Buera
Antioxidant and anti-glycation potential of green pepper (Piper nigrum): Optimization of β-cyclodextrin-based extraction by response surface methodology.
Food Chem: 2020, 316;126280
[PubMed:32058192] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Thi Tho Bui, Yanjing Fan, Chun Hua Piao, Thi Van Nguyen, Dong-Uk Shin, Sun Young Jung, Eunjin Hyeon, Chang Ho Song, So-Young Lee, Hee Soon Shin, Ok Hee Chai
Piper Nigrum extract improves OVA-induced nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction via activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.
Cell. Immunol.: 2019;104035
[PubMed:32051090] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Lívia Pinto Heckert Bastos, Carlos Henrique Corrêa Dos Santos, Mario Geraldo de Carvalho, Edwin Elard Garcia-Rojas
Encapsulation of the black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) essential oil by lactoferrin-sodium alginate complex coacervates: Structural characterization and simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
Food Chem: 2020, 316;126345
[PubMed:32045817] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Heying Pei, Linlin Xue, Minghai Tang, Huan Tang, Shuang Kuang, Lun Wang, Xu Ma, Xiaoying Cai, Yan Li, Min Zhao, Aihua Peng, Haoyu Ye, LiJuan Chen
Alkaloids from Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Exhibit Anti-inflammatory Activity in Murine Macrophages by Inhibiting Activation of NF-κB Pathway.
J. Agric. Food Chem.: 2020;
[PubMed:32031370] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, P Brahmanaidu, Saravanan Ganapathy
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the Poly Herbal Formulation. Identification of bioactive factors.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem: 2020;
[PubMed:32031078] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects