Piper longum

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P309 2.jpg
P309 1.jpg
Tcm415.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Piper longum

Piper longum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Biba ÜêÜØ Chinese Name (pinyin): Bibo

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Long Pepper

Specific Name  : Fructus piperis longi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected when the spike turns from green to black, remo9ve from foreign matter and dried in the sun.

Description  : Cylindrical, slightly curved, aggregated by numerous small berries, 1.5 - 3.5cm long, 3 - 5mm in diameter. Externally blackish brown or brown with obliquely and regularly arranged protrudings, base bearing a remains of peduncle or sometimes fallen away. Texture hard and easily broken. Fracture irregular and granular. Small berries spheroidal, about 1mm in diameter. Odor characteristically aromatic, taste pungent.

Identification  : 1.Powder: greyish brown, stone cells subrounded, long ovoid or polygonal, 25 - 61µm in diameter up to 170µm long, walls relatively thickened, some distinctly striated. Oil cells subrounded. 25 - 66µm in diameter. Cells of testa reddish brown, long polygonal, walls beaded, starch granules small, usually aggregated.2.To small quantity of the powder add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a bright red color is produced, gradually becomes reddish brown at last.3.To 0.8g of the powder add 5ml of dehydrated ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve piperine CRS dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 4mg per mlas the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate acetone (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solution to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Examine under ultra violet light (365nm), the fluorescence spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat under a current of hot air to the spot distinct. The yellowish brown color spot in the chromatogram obtained wqith the test solution corresponds in the position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Foreign matter: not more than 3% (Appendix lX A)Water: Carry out the method for determination of water (Appendix LX H, method 2) not more than 11.0%Total ash: not more than 5.0% (Appendix lX K)Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D)Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use octadecysilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol- water (77:23) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector is 343nm. The number of theoretical plates of the column is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of piperine. The resolution factor between the peaks of piperine and the internal standard complies with the related requirements.Internal standard solution: Dissolve a quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 0.5mg per ml as the internal substance.Procedure: Dissolve a quantity of piperine CRS, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml. Measure accurately 2ml of each of the above solutions and internal standard solution to a 25ml amber volumetric flask. Dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, calculate the correction factor. Weigh accurately 0.25g of the drug powder, perform a determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 2) in a 100ml amber volumetric flask, add 80 ml fo dehydrated ethanol and ultrasonicate (power less than 150W, Frequence not less than 12 kHz) for at least 30 minutes. Allow to stand to room temperature, dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume, shake thoroughly and filter. Measure accurately 20 ml of the filtrate and 2ml of the internal standard solutions in an amber volumetric flask and dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, measure the peak area and calculate the content with corrected internal standard method. It contains not less than 3.0% of piperine (C17H19O3N) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to pieces before use.

Action  : To dispel cold from the spleen and the stomach, and to relieve pain.

Indication  : epigastric pain; vomiting and diarrhea caused by cold; migraine external: toothache

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 1.5 to 3 g; for external use, appropriate quantity to be ground into powder and filled in the cavity of dental caries.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

P309 2.jpg
P309 1.jpg
Tcm415.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Piper longum

Piper longum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Biba ÜêÜØ Chinese Name (pinyin): Bibo

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Long Pepper

Specific Name  : Fructus piperis longi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected when the spike turns from green to black, remo9ve from foreign matter and dried in the sun.

Description  : Cylindrical, slightly curved, aggregated by numerous small berries, 1.5 - 3.5cm long, 3 - 5mm in diameter. Externally blackish brown or brown with obliquely and regularly arranged protrudings, base bearing a remains of peduncle or sometimes fallen away. Texture hard and easily broken. Fracture irregular and granular. Small berries spheroidal, about 1mm in diameter. Odor characteristically aromatic, taste pungent.

Identification  : 1.Powder: greyish brown, stone cells subrounded, long ovoid or polygonal, 25 - 61µm in diameter up to 170µm long, walls relatively thickened, some distinctly striated. Oil cells subrounded. 25 - 66µm in diameter. Cells of testa reddish brown, long polygonal, walls beaded, starch granules small, usually aggregated.2.To small quantity of the powder add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a bright red color is produced, gradually becomes reddish brown at last.3.To 0.8g of the powder add 5ml of dehydrated ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve piperine CRS dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 4mg per mlas the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel as the coating substance and benzene-ethyl acetate acetone (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solution to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Examine under ultra violet light (365nm), the fluorescence spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat under a current of hot air to the spot distinct. The yellowish brown color spot in the chromatogram obtained wqith the test solution corresponds in the position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Foreign matter: not more than 3% (Appendix lX A)Water: Carry out the method for determination of water (Appendix LX H, method 2) not more than 11.0%Total ash: not more than 5.0% (Appendix lX K)Assay: Carry out the method for high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix Vl D)Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use octadecysilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol- water (77:23) as the mobile phase. The wave length of the detector is 343nm. The number of theoretical plates of the column is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of piperine. The resolution factor between the peaks of piperine and the internal standard complies with the related requirements.Internal standard solution: Dissolve a quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 0.5mg per ml as the internal substance.Procedure: Dissolve a quantity of piperine CRS, accurately weighed in dehydrated ethanol in an amber volumetric flask to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml. Measure accurately 2ml of each of the above solutions and internal standard solution to a 25ml amber volumetric flask. Dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, calculate the correction factor. Weigh accurately 0.25g of the drug powder, perform a determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 2) in a 100ml amber volumetric flask, add 80 ml fo dehydrated ethanol and ultrasonicate (power less than 150W, Frequence not less than 12 kHz) for at least 30 minutes. Allow to stand to room temperature, dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume, shake thoroughly and filter. Measure accurately 20 ml of the filtrate and 2ml of the internal standard solutions in an amber volumetric flask and dilute with dehydrated ethanol to volume and mix well. Inject 10µl into the column, measure the peak area and calculate the content with corrected internal standard method. It contains not less than 3.0% of piperine (C17H19O3N) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to pieces before use.

Action  : To dispel cold from the spleen and the stomach, and to relieve pain.

Indication  : epigastric pain; vomiting and diarrhea caused by cold; migraine external: toothache

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 1.5 to 3 g; for external use, appropriate quantity to be ground into powder and filled in the cavity of dental caries.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Piper longum

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Piper longum

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Piper longum in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Leonardo Cristian Favre, Guido Rolandelli, Ndumiso Mshicileli, Lusani Norah Vhangani, Cristina Dos Santos Ferreira, Jessy van Wyk, María Del Pilar Buera
Antioxidant and anti-glycation potential of green pepper (Piper nigrum): Optimization of β-cyclodextrin-based extraction by response surface methodology.
Food Chem: 2020, 316;126280
[PubMed:32058192] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

V Satheeskumar, T Subramani, C Lakshumanan, Priyadarsi D Roy, D Karunanidhi
Groundwater chemistry and demarcation of seawater intrusion zones in the Thamirabarani delta of south India based on geochemical signatures.
Environ Geochem Health: 2020;
[PubMed:32052365] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Thi Tho Bui, Yanjing Fan, Chun Hua Piao, Thi Van Nguyen, Dong-Uk Shin, Sun Young Jung, Eunjin Hyeon, Chang Ho Song, So-Young Lee, Hee Soon Shin, Ok Hee Chai
Piper Nigrum extract improves OVA-induced nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction via activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.
Cell. Immunol.: 2019;104035
[PubMed:32051090] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Jan Dörr, Priscilla Bäcker-Koduah, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Elke Becker, Frank Hoffmann, Jürgen Faiss, Bernd Brockmeier, Olaf Hoffmann, Kerstin Anvari, Jens Wuerfel, Sophie K Piper, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul
High-dose vitamin D supplementation in multiple sclerosis - results from the randomized EVIDIMS (efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in multiple sclerosis) trial.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin: 2019, 6(1);2055217320903474
[PubMed:32047645] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Lívia Pinto Heckert Bastos, Carlos Henrique Corrêa Dos Santos, Mario Geraldo de Carvalho, Edwin Elard Garcia-Rojas
Encapsulation of the black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) essential oil by lactoferrin-sodium alginate complex coacervates: Structural characterization and simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
Food Chem: 2020, 316;126345
[PubMed:32045817] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects