Papaver somniferum

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P475 2.jpg
P475 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Papaver somniferum

Papaver somniferum in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Yumike ÐjÃ×¿Ç Zhimike ÖËÃ×¿Ç Chinese Name (pinyin): Yingsuke (Yingsuqiao)

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Poppy Capsule

Specific Name  : Pericarpium papaveris

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn when the fruit is ripe and juice removed, broken, removed from seed, branches and dried.

Description  : Ellipsoidal or bottle like ovoid, mostly broken to pieces, 1.5 - 5cm in diameter, 3 - 7cm long. Outer surface yellowish white, pale brown to pale purple, smooth somewhat lustrous with longitudinal or transverse cutting scars. At the apex bearing 6 - 14 remains of the stigmate, arranged radially, dish shaped and a short stalk at the base. Texture light and fragile. Inner surface pale yellow, somewhat lustrous with logitudinally arrnged brownish yellow septa, bearing numerous slightly prominent and brown dots. Odour slightly aromatic and taste slightly bitter.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Yellowish white, the outer epidermal cells of pericarp subpolygonal or subsquare in surface view, 20 - 50µm in diameter, walls thickened, some lumina containing pale yellow contents. The inner epidermal cells of pericarp elongated polygonal, rectangular or linear in surface view, 20 - 65µm in diameter, 25 - 230µm long, anticlinal walls thickened pits and pit canals distinct, sometimes striations visible. Parenchymatous cells of pericarp subrounded or oblong, walls slightly thickened. Vessels mostly reticulated or spiral, 10 - 70µm in diameter. Phloem fibres elongated fusiform, 20 - 30µm in diamter, walls slightly thiockened, oblique pits distinct, some pits crossed. "V" shaped or crisscross shaped. Laticiferous tube linear, walls thickened, containing pale yellow conents.2.To 1g of the powder add 15 ml of 5% solution of hydrochloric acid ethanol, macerate by warming for 30 minutes, filter while white hot. Evaporate the filtrate to dryness, dissolve the residue in 6ml of 5% hydrochloric acid, transfer the solution of two test tubes. To one tube, add potassium iodobismuthate TS, an orange red precipitate is produced. To another test tube, add potassium mercuric iodide TS, a greyish white precipitate is produced.3.To 1g of the powder add 10 ml of ethanol, macerate by warming for 30 minutes and filter. Transfer 0.5ml of the filtrate to a 25ml volumetric flask, dilute to volume with ethanol. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry (Appendix V A), the light absorption exhibit a maximum at 283nm.4.To 2g of the powder add 20ml of methanol, heat under reflux for 30 minutes, filter while hot and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolved the residue in 1 ml of methanol as the test solution. Dissolve morphinehydrochloride CRS codeine phosphate CRS and papaverine hydrochloride CRS in methanol to produce a mixed solution containing 1mg of each per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vll B), using silica gel G mixed with 2% sodium hydroxide solution as the coating substance and toluene-acetone-ethanol-strong ammomia TS (20:20:3:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 2 - 4µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Examine under ultra violet light (365nm). The fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Spray with dilute potassium iodobismuthate TS and ethanolic sodium nitrite TS successively, examine under day light. The spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, break to pieces, wash clean, soften thoroughly and cut into slivers.Stir fried with vinegar: Stir fry the clean slivers as described under the method for stir frying with vinegar. (Appendix ll D) to dryness.Stir fried with honey: Stir fry the clean slivers as described under the method for stir frying with honey (Appendix ll D) to unsticky after cooling.

Action  : To relieve cough, to arrest diarrhea with prolapse of the rectum; epigastric and abdominal pain.

Indication  : chronic cough; chronic diarrhea with prolapse of the rectum; epigastric and abdominal pain

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 6 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Papaver somniferum

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Papaver somniferum

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Papaver somniferum in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Wanying Zhao, Xiaolu Qu, Yuhui Zhuang, Ludi Wang, Maurice Bosch, Vernonica E Franklin-Tong, Yongbiao Xue, Shanjin Huang
Villin Controls the Formation and Enlargement of Punctate Actin Foci in Pollen Tubes.
J. Cell. Sci.: 2020;
[PubMed:32051284] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Marie-Line M van der Poorten, Athina L Van Gasse, Margo M Hagendorens, Margaretha A Faber, Leander De Puysseleyr, Jessy Elst, Christel M Mertens, Vito Sabato, Didier G Ebo
Serum specific IgE antibodies in immediate drug hypersensitivity.
Clin. Chim. Acta: 2020, 504;119-124
[PubMed:32035852] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Mohammad Moghaddam, Leila Mehdizadeh, Zahra Sharifi
Macro- and microelement content and health risk assessment of heavy metals in various herbs of Iran.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int: 2020;
[PubMed:31993898] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Zhaoping Zhang, Changjian Li, Junqing Zhang, Fang Chen, Yongfu Gong, Yanrong Li, Yujie Su, Yujie Wei, Yucheng Zhao
##Title##
Genes (Basel): 2020, 11(2);
[PubMed:31979407] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Hang Wang, Jian Yu, Yasuharu Satoh, Yusuke Nakagawa, Ryusuke Tanaka, Koji Kato, Min Yao
Crystal structures clarify cofactor binding of plant tyrosine decarboxylase.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.: 2020, 523(2);500-505
[PubMed:31898973] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects