Nelumbo nucifera

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Heye

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Lotus Leaf

Specific Name  : Folium nelumbinis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in summer and autumn, dried in the sun to remove the most of the water, removed from petioles, folded to semi rounded or plicate and dried again.

Description  : Semi-rounded or fan shaped, subrounded when spread, 20 - 50cm in diameter, margins entire or slightly sinuous. Upper surface dark green or yellowish green, relatively rough, lower surface pale yellowish brown, relatively smooth with 21 - 22 thick veins radiating from the center to the border with convex remains of petiole in the center. Texture fragile, easily broken, odor slightly aromatic, taste slightly bitter.

Identification  : Powder: Greyish green, upper epidermal cells polygonal with papilla or short tomentose convexes stomata, anomocytic, subsidiary cells 5 - 8. Anticlinal walls of lower epidermal cells slightly sinuous, sometimes beaded, cluster of calcium oxalate numerous up to 40µm in diameter.Processing: Spray with water, moisten briefly and cut into slivers and dry.Carbonized: carbopnize under the method for carbonizing by calcining

Processing  :

Action  : To relieve summer-heat, to invigorate the spleen function of the spleen and arrest bleeding by reducing heat in blood. Folium Nelumbinis (carbonized): To arrest bleeding, remove blood stasis.

Indication  : summer-heat with intense thirst; diarrhea caused by summer-damp or hypofunction of the spleen; spitting of blood, epistaxis, hematochezia and abnormal uterine bleeding caused by heat in the blood carbonized: bleeding; post-partum

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g: fresh Folium Nelumbinis: 15 to 30 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated dry place, protected from moth.

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Tcm p52 0036.jpg
P360 1.jpg
Tcm p52 002c.jpg
Tcm p52 002a.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Oujietan ź½ÚÌ¿ Shengoujie Éúź½Ú Chinese Name (pinyin): Oujie

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Lotus Node

Specific Name  : Nodus nelumbinis rhizomatis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn and winter, cut off wash clean, dried in the sun and removed from rootlet.

Description  : Shortly cylindrical, slightly swollen at the middle, 2 - 4cm long, 2cm in diameter. Externally greyish yellow to yellowish brown with remains of rootlets and rootlets scars and occasionally with remains of dark reddish brown scale leaves. Both ends having residual lotus roots, wrinkled and longitudinal-striated externally. Texture hard, fracture with numerous subrounded pores, odor slight, taste slightly sweet and astringent.Total ash: Not more than 8.0%

Identification  :

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter wash clean and dry.Carbonized: Stir fry as described under the method for carbonizing by stir frying (Appendix ll D) until the surface is charred and the inner part becomes yellowish brown.

Action  : To arrest bleeding and remove blood stasis.

Indication  : hematemesis, hemoptysis, hematuria, abnormal uterine bleeding

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 9 to 15 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place, protected from moisture.

Tcm p52 0022.jpg
Tcm p52 0036.jpg
P360 1.jpg
Tcm p52 002c.jpg
Tcm p52 002a.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Lianzixin

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Lotus Plumule

Specific Name  : Plumula nelumbinis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is taken out from the seed and dried in the sun.

Description  : Fine clavate, 1 - 1.4cmlong, about 0.2cm in diameter. The young cotyledons green, one long and the other short, curved to arrow shaped, apex folded downwards, a fine plumule visible between the two cotyledons. Radicle cylindrical, about 3 mm long, yellowish white. Texture fragile, easily broken, fracture showing several small pits. Odour slight and taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Greyish green, epidermal cells subrectangular, radial prolonged thin walled. Mesophyll cells subrounded, thin walled, containing numerous starch granules and green pigments. Radicle cells rectangular, arranged tidily, walls extremely thin and and some cells containing fatty oil droplets. The tissue of young buds showing relatively large cell spaces.2.Heat under reflux 2g of the p[owder in 15 ml of chloroform and 1 ml of 10% solution of sodium hydroxide for 15 minutes. Filter, expel chloroform from the filtrate on water bath. Dissolve the residue to 2 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid TS and filter. To 1 ml of the filtrate add 1 - 2 drops of potassium iodobismuthate, an orange red precipitate is produced.Water: Carry out the method for the determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 1), not more than 12.0 %

Processing  :

Action  : To remove heat from the heart and calm the nerves, to restore the coordination between the heart and the kidney, to check emission, and to arrest bleeding.

Indication  : delirium due to heat; insomnia and seminal emission due to breakdown of the coordination between the heart and the kidney; hemoptysis due to heat in the blood

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 2 to 5 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated dry place, protected from mould and moth.

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Tcm p52 0036.jpg
P360 1.jpg
Tcm p52 002c.jpg
Tcm p52 002a.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Lianfang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Lotus receptacle

Specific Name  : Receptaculum nelumbinis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn when the fruit is ripe, removed from the fruits and dried in the sun.

Description  : Obconical or funnel shaped, frequently dilacerate, 5 - 8 cm in diameter, 4.5 - 6 cm high. Externally greyish brown with fine longitudinal striations and wrinkles. The top with numerous rounded hollows and the base with remains of pedicels. Texture lax, broken fracture sponge like, brown, odour slight and taste slightly astringent

Identification  : 1.Microscopical powder: Yellowish brown, epidermal cells polygonal in surface view, papilla double, circlet shaped, Clusters of calcium oxalate numerous. 10 - 54 µm in diameter. Brown cells subsquare or subrounded, walls slightly thickened, containing reddish brown contents in lumen. Spiral and annular vessels 8 - 80 µm in diameter. Fibres in bundles, pitted, 11 - 35 µm in diameter. 2.Macerate warmly 0.5 g of the powder in 5 ml of ethanol for several minutes and filter. To the filtrate add a small quantity of magnesium powder and 1 - 2 drops of hydrochloric acid, the solution turns to red gradually.Water: Carry out the method for determination of water (Appendix lX H), not more than 14.0%.Total ash: Not more than 7.0%

Processing  :

Action  : To remove blood stasis and arrest bleeding.

Indication  : abnormal uterine bleeding, hematuria, hemorrhoidal bleeding, postpartum blood stasis, lochiorrhea

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 4.5 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place, protected from moisture.

Tcm p52 0022.jpg
Tcm p52 0036.jpg
P360 1.jpg
Tcm p52 002c.jpg
Tcm p52 002a.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Lianzirou Á«×ÓÈâ Chinese Name (pinyin): Lianzi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Lotus Seed

Specific Name  : Semen nelumbinis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn when the fruit is ripe, removed from the pericarp and dried.

Description  : Somewhat ellipsoidal. 1.2 - 1.8cm long, 0.8 - 1.4cm in diameter. Externally pale yellowish brown to reddish brown with fine longitudinal striations relatively wide veins. The center of one end papillate, dark brown mostly with cracks, somewhat dented around the edge. Texture hard, testa thin, uneasily peeled off. 2 cotyledons, yellowish white, plump with green lotus plumale at the space between the cotyledons. Odorless, taste sweet and slightly astringent.

Identification  : 1.Powder almost white and mainly starch granules. Simple granule long, rounded, sub-rounded, sub-triangular, some with small protruding, 4 - 25µm in diameter. A few hilum visible, cleft or dotted compound granule rare consisting of 2 - 3 components. Cells of pigmented layer yellowish brown or reddish brown on surface view, subrectangular, sublong polygonal or subrounded. Sometimes calcium oxalate clusters visible. Cotyledon cells oval, walls slightly thick, some beaded, pitted areas faint. Annular and spiral vessels visible.2.Shake thoroughlya small quantity of the powder and a quantity of water and several drops of iodide TS, a bluish purple color is produced. The color abate gradually after heating, allow to cool, the bluish purple produced again.3.Macerate 0.5g of the powder in 5 ml of water filter to a test tube, add several drops of a-naphthanol TS, mix well. Add dropwise 1 ml of sulfuric acid along the tube wall, a purple color ring is produced at the junction of the two layers.

Processing  : Soak with water for a moment, soften thoroughly, cut, remove the lotus plumule, and dry.

Action  : To tonify the spleen, to relieve diarrhea, to replenish the kidney, to arrest seminal emission, and to nourish the heart, to induce tranquilization.

Indication  : protracted diarrhea due to hypofunction of the spleen, seminal emission, leukorrhagia; palpitation, insomnia

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 6 to 15 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place, protected from moth.

Tcm p52 0022.jpg
Tcm p52 0036.jpg
P360 1.jpg
Tcm p52 002c.jpg
Tcm p52 002a.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Lianxu

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Lotus Stamen

Specific Name  : Stamen nelumbinis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected at flowering period on fine days in summer and dried in the sun under the cover of paper or in shade.

Description  : Linear, anthers twisted, longitudinally split, 1.2 - 1.5 cm long about 0.1 cm in diameter, pale yellow or brownish yellow. Filaments slender, slightly curved, 1.5 - 1.8 cm long, pale purple, odor slightly aromatic and taste astringent.

Identification  : Powder, yellowish brown, pollen grains sub-spherical or oblong, 45 - 86 µm in diameter with 3 pit canals and granularly reticulate in the surface. Epidermal cells rectangular, polygonal or irregular, anticlinal walls sinouos, outer walls papillated in lateral view, cells in inner wall of pollen pocket strip shaped, thick walled and the lumina containing yellowish brown or reddish brown contents. Vessels spiral.

Processing  :

Action  : To astringe the kidney and arrest spontaneous emission.

Indication  : seminal emission, spermatorrhea, excessive leukorrhea, frequent urination

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 5 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place, protected from mould.

Synonymns for Nelumbo nucifera

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Nelumbo nucifera

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Nelumbo nucifera in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Ye Li, Feng-Lin Zhu, Xing-Wen Zheng, Man-Li Hu, Chen Dong, Ying Diao, You-Wei Wang, Ke-Qiang Xie, Zhong-Li Hu
Comparative population genomics reveals genetic divergence and selection in lotus, Nelumbo nucifera.
BMC Genomics: 2020, 21(1);146
[PubMed:32046648] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Ching-Chi Yen, Chun-Wei Tung, Chih-Wei Chang, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Mei-Chich Hsu, Yu-Tse Wu
Potential Risk of Higenamine Misuse in Sports: Evaluation of Lotus Plumule Extract Products and a Human Study.
Nutrients: 2020, 12(2);
[PubMed:31973198] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Manish Kumar, Rajneesh Bhardwaj
Wetting characteristics of Colocasia esculenta (Taro) leaf and a bioinspired surface thereof.
Sci Rep: 2020, 10(1);935
[PubMed:31969578] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Muhammad Ali Rajput, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Shahid Zafar, Azra Riaz, Rahila Ikram
Assessment of anti-coagulant activity of Nelumbo nucifera fruit.
Pak J Pharm Sci: 2019, 32(6);2561-2564
[PubMed:31969286] [WorldCat.org] (I p)

Jian Liu, Yang Lu, Guancong Li, Min Xiao, Guangming Yang, Yang Pan
##Title##
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.: 2020;1-16
[PubMed:31918633] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects