Moschus moschiferus

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Moschus moschiferus

Moschus moschiferus in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Cunxiang ´çÏã Dangmenzi µ±ÃÅ×Ó Shexiang ÉäÏã Yuancun Ôª´ç Chinese Name (pinyin): Shexiang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Musk

Specific Name  : Moschus

Scientific Name:
Collection  :

Description  : Maoke Shexiang: In oblate or subellipsoidal sac, 3 - 7cm in diameter, 2 - 4cm thick. The skin of the opening side leathery, brown, slightly even with dense white or whitish brown short hairs around the center from both sides. A small sac opening located in the centre. The other side of the skin is brown and slight purple dermal membrane, slightly shrunken, muscles fibres occasional and slightly elastic. After opening of the sac, the middle dermal membrane brown or greyish brown, transluscent, the inner dermal membrane brown with granular or powdery "Shexiang ren", a small amount of thin hairs and dropped inner membrane, [commonly known as "Yinpi" (silver membrane)].Shexiang ren: For samples taken from the wild musk deer, texture soft, oily and lax, the granules commonly known as "Dangmen Zi" (dangmen granule), irregularly spheroidal or granular, the surface usually purplish black, oily and bright with slight poked stripes, fracture dark brown or yellowish brown. The powder brown or yellowish brown with a small amount of dropped inner membrane and thin hairs. From samples taken from the domestic musk deer, granular in short strips or irregular masses, the surface uneven, purplish black or dark brown, oily and slightly lustrous with small amopunt of hairs and dropped inner membrane. Odour characteristic and strongly aromatic, taste slightly pungent, bitter and salty.

Identification  : 1.Insert a special grooved needle into "Maoke Shexiang " from the sac opening, turn the needle to get "Shexiang ren" and observed immediately. The Shexiang ren in the grooved swells gradually and gets beyond the surface of the grooved. This phenomenom is commonly known as " over the grooved", oily, granules lax without acute angle. Odour strong aromatic. No foreighn matter such as fibers etc. or unusual odour observed.2.Put a small amount of "Shexiang ren " powder in palm, moiten the powder with water. The powder can be rubbed into a ball with hands, inintegrate when gently kneaded by fingers. It does not stick or stain the hand or bond into masses.3.Ignite small amount of Shexiang ren in a red hot crusible. The substance crack at first, then melts and swells to from a pearl like foam with strongly characteristic and aromaric odor. No burnt smell of hairs or flesh and flame or spark is oberved. The residue shows white or gfreyish white in colour.4.Shexiang ren powder brown or yellowish brown. In transluscent or transparent masses aggregated from numerous amorphous granules, pale yellow or pale brown with cubioc cylindrical, octahedronal or irregualr crystals enbedded or scattered in the mass, rounded oil drops visible hairs and inner membrane tissues occasional.5.The retention tim of the peak in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution under the test for Assay correspond with the chromatogram obtained with muscone CRS.Foreighn matter: No animal or plant tissues, minerals or other fales substance, no mildewing allowable.Loss in drying: When dried 1g to constant weight in vacuum over phosphorous pentoxide in a desiccator, loses not more than 35.0% of its weight (Appendix lX G)Total ash: Carry out the methid for determination of ash (Appendix lX K) using 1g not more than 6.5% calculated on the dried basis.Assay: Carry out the method for chromatography (Appendix Vl E)Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use 2% phenylmethyl polysiloxane (OV-17) as the stationary phase, maintain the column temperature at 200± 10ºC. The number of theoritical plates of the column is not less than 1500, calculated with the reference to the peak of muscone.Preparation of reference solution: Dissolve a quantity muscone CRS, weigh accurately in dehydrated etahnol to produced a solution conatining 1.5mg per ml as the reference solution.Preparation of test solution: Weigh accurately 0.2g of the powder obtained under the test of loss on drying, add accurately 2ml of dehydrated ethanol, stopper tightly and shake. Allow to stand fro 1 hour, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution.Procedure: Inject accurately 2µl of each of the reference solution and the test solution respectively into the column, determine and calculate the content. It contains not less than 2.0% of muscone (C16H30O) on dried basis.

Processing  : Remove the sac wall of Maoke Shexiang, take out the Shexiang ren and eliminate foreign matter and pulverized before use.

Action  : To restore consciousness, to activate blood circulation and stimulate menstrual discharge, to cause sunsidence of swelling, and to relieve pain.

Indication  : loss of consciousness in febrile diseases, stroke, syncope and attack of noxious factors; amenorrhea, mass in the abdomen; dystocia; sudden attack of precordial and abdominal pain; carbuncles, lymphadenitis; sore throat; traumatic pain; numbness and pain in arthritis

Precautions  : Contraindicated in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 0.03 to 0.1 g, mostly used in making pills or powders; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place, protected from light, moisture and moth.

Synonymns for Moschus moschiferus

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Moschus moschiferus

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Moschus moschiferus in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Li Yi, Menggen Dalai, Rina Su, Weili Lin, Myagmarsuren Erdenedalai, Batkhuu Luvsantseren, Chimedragchaa Chimedtseren, Zhen Wang, Surong Hasi
Whole-genome sequencing of wild Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) provides insights into its genetic features.
BMC Genomics: 2020, 21(1);108
[PubMed:32005147] [] [DOI] (I e)

Yun Luo, Ting Tan, Xin-Li Liang, Hai-Ping Zhao, Zheng-Gen Liao, Ming Yang
[Quality evaluation of musk based on the biological potency of its anti-thrombin activty].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi: 2018, 43(10);2112-2117
[PubMed:29933679] [] [DOI] (P p)

Ju-Hye Yang, Hyun Ju Do, Esther Lee, Nam-Hui Yim, Won-Kyung Cho, Kwang-Il Park, Jin Yeul Ma
Jageum-Jung improves 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice and suppresses pro-inflammatory chemokine production by inhibiting TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced STAT-1 and NFκB signaling in HaCaT cells.
J Ethnopharmacol: 2018, 221;48-55
[PubMed:29660465] [] [DOI] (I p)

Elena V Volodina, Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Chelysheva, Roland Frey
Hiss and snort call types of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis: acoustic structure and context.
BMC Res Notes: 2018, 11(1);12
[PubMed:29316966] [] [DOI] (I e)

Tao Pan, Hui Wang, Chaochao Hu, Zhonglou Sun, Xiaoxue Zhu, Tao Meng, Xiuxiang Meng, Baowei Zhang
Species Delimitation in the Genus Moschus (Ruminantia: Moschidae) and Its High-Plateau Origin.
PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(8);e0134183
[PubMed:26280166] [] [DOI] (I e)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects