Glycyrrhiza inflata

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Glycyrrhiza inflata

Glycyrrhiza inflata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Fengancao ·Û¸Ê²Ý Gancaoshao ¸Ê²ÝÉÒ Shenggancao Éú¸Ê²Ý Zhigancao ÖË¸Ê²Ý Chinese Name (pinyin): Gancao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Liquorice

Specific Name  : Radix glycyrrhizae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, remove from rootlet and dried in the sun.

Description  : Root of Glycyrrhizae uralensis: Roots cylindrical, 2 - 100 cm long, 0.6 - 3.5 cm in diameter. The outer bark loose or tight. Externally reddish brown or greyish brown, obviously longitudinally wrinkled furrowed, lenticellate with sparse rootlet scars. Texture compact, fracture slightly fibrous, yellowish white starchy, cambium ring distinct, rays radiate, some with clefts. Rhizomes cylindrical, externally with bud scars, pith present in the center of fracture. Odour slight, taste sweet and characteristic.Root of Glycyrrhizae inflata: Roots and rhizomes woody and stout, some branched, the outer bark rough, mostly greyish brown. Texture compact. More lignified fibres and less starchy. Rhizomes with more and large adventitious buds.Roots of Glycyrrhzae glabra: Texture of the root and rhizomes relatively compact, some branched, the outer bark not rough, mostly greyish brown, lenticels small and indistinct.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Cork consisting of several layers of brown cells. Cortex relatively narrow. Phloem rays broad mostly curved, frequently with clefts, most phloem fibres in bundles, unlignified or slightly lignified. Surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate, sieve tube tissue often press to be collapsed. Fascicular cambium distinct. Xylem rays 3- 5 cells wide, vessels frequent up to 160 µm in diameter, xylem fibres in bundles, surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate. Roots without pith at the center, rhizomes processing pith at the center.Powder: Brownish yellow, fibres in bundles. 8 - 14 µm in diameter, thick walled, slightly lignified, surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate forming crystal fibres. Prisms of calcium oxalate frequent. Bordered pitted vessels large, reticulated vessels rare. Cork cells reddish brown, polygonal, slightly lignified.3.To 1g of the powder add 40 ml of ether. Heat under reflux on a water bath for 1 hour, filter. Heat the residue under reflux in 30 ml of methanol on a water bath for 1 hour and filter. Evaporate the filtrate to dryness and dissolve the residue in 40 ml of water. Extract the aqueous solution with 3 quantities, each of 20 ml of n-butanol. Combine the n-butanol solution wash with water for 3 times and evaporate on a water bath to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 5 ml of methanol as the test solution. Prepare a solution of Radix Glycyrrhizae reference drug in the same manner as the reference drug solution. Dissolve ammonium glycyrrhizate CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G containing 1% solution of sodium hydroxide as the coating substance and ethyl acetate-methanol-glacial acetic acid-water (30:2:2:4) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate. 1 -2 µl of each of the three solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol, heat at 105ºC to visualize clearly and examine under ultra violet light (365 nm). The fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution. The orange yellow fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Water: Carry out the method for determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 1) not more than 12.0%. Total ash: Not more than 7.0% (Appendix lX K)Acid insoluble ash: Not more than 2.0%

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry.

Action  : To reinforce the function of the spleen and replenish qi, to remove heat and counteract toxicity, to dispel phlegm and relieve cough, to alleviate spasmodic pain, and to moderate drug actions. Radix Glycyrrhizae (processed with honey): To reinforce the fu

Indication  : weakness of the spleen and the stomach marked by lassitude and weakness; cardiac palpitation and shortness of breath; cough with much phlegm; spasmodic pain in the epigastrium, abdomen and limbs; carbuncles and sores. Often used for reducing the toxic and drastic actions of other drugs

Precautions  : Incompatible with Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa and Radix Kansui.

Dosage  : 1.5 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated and dry place, protected from moth.

Tcm341.jpg
P107 6.jpg
Tcm279.jpg
P106 2.jpg
P106 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Glycyrrhiza inflata

Glycyrrhiza inflata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Zhigancao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Liquorice Root (processed with honey)

Specific Name  : Radix glycyrrhizae preparata

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is a processed Radix Glycyrrhizae.

Description  : Procedure: Stir fry the slices of Radix Glycyrrhizae as described under the method for stir frying with honey (Appendix ll D) until it becomes yellow to deep yellow and not sticky to the fingers, take out and cool in the air.Description: Occurring in subrounded oe eliptical slices, externally reddish brown, slightly lustrous, cut surface yellow to deep yellow. Cambium ring distinct, rays radiate. Texture slightly sticky. Odour with agreeable burnt smelling, taste sweet.

Identification  : Carry out the method as described under Identification test (2) in the monograph of Radix Glycyrrhizae, it shows the same result.Water: Carry out the method for determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 1) not more than 10.0%Total ash: Not more than 5.0% (Appendix lX K)Acid insoluble ash: Not more than 1.0%

Processing  :

Action  : To invigorate the function of spleen and stomach, to reinforce qi and promote blood circulation.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 1.5 to 9 g.

Storage  : Incompatible with Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa and Radix Kansui.

Synonymns for Glycyrrhiza inflata

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Glycyrrhiza inflata

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Glycyrrhiza inflata in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Chengcheng Wang, Lihong Chen, Chaoqie Xu, Jingjing Shi, Shuyu Chen, Mengxia Tan, Jiali Chen, Lisi Zou, Cuihua Chen, Zixiu Liu, Xunhong Liu
##Title##
Am. J. Chin. Med.: 2020, 48(1);17-45
[PubMed:31931596] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Maoyuan Jiang, Shengjia Zhao, Shasha Yang, Xia Lin, Xiguo He, Xinyi Wei, Qin Song, Rui Li, Chaomei Fu, Jinming Zhang, Zhen Zhang
An "essential herbal medicine"-licorice: A review of phytochemicals and its effects in combination preparations.
J Ethnopharmacol: 2020, 249;112439
[PubMed:31811935] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Xiaojing Zhang, Xiangru Kong, Yali Hao, Xiaoling Zhang, Zhenyuan Zhu
Chemical structure and inhibition on α-glucosidase of polysaccharide with alkaline-extracted from glycyrrhiza inflata residue.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.: 2019;
[PubMed:31739069] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Ah-Won Kwak, Seung-Sik Cho, Goo Yoon, Ha-Na Oh, Mee-Hyun Lee, Jung-Il Chae, Jung-Hyun Shim
Licochalcone H Synthesized by Modifying Structure of Licochalcone C Extracted from Glycyrrhiza inflata Induces Apoptosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.: 2019;
[PubMed:31707583] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Y Ishimi, J Takebayashi, Y Tousen, J Yamauchi, H Fuchino, T Kawano, T Inui, K Yoshimatsu, N Kawahara
Quality evaluation of health foods containing licorice in the Japanese Market.
Toxicol Rep: 2019, 6;904-913
[PubMed:31508319] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects