Gentiana manshurica

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Gentiana manshurica

Gentiana manshurica in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Chinese Name (pinyin): Longdan

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Chinese Gentian

Specific Name  : Radix gentianae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, washed clean and dried.

Description  : Longdan: Rhizomes irregularly lump shaped, 1 - 3 cm long, 0.3 - 1 cm in diameter, externally dark greyish brown or dark brown, upper part with stem scars or remains of stem bases, surroundings and the lower part bearing numerous slender roots. Roots cylindrical, slightly twisted, 10 - 20 cm long, 2 - 5 mm in diameter. Externally pale yellow or yellowish brown, mostly the upper part exhibiting obvious transverse wrinkles, lower part narrower and marked with longitudinal wrinkles and rootlet scars. Texture fragile, easily broken, fracture slightly even, bark yellowish white or yellowish brown, wood paler in colour and appearing dotted ringed. Odour slight, taste rather bitter.Jianlongdan: Externally with out transverse wrinkles, the outer layer membranaceous, easily fallen off, wood yellowish white, easily separated from bark.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Longdan Epidermal cells sometimes found the outer walls relatively thick. Cortex narrow, cells of exodermis subsquare, walls slightly thick, suberized, cells of endodermis elongated tangentially. Each cell divided with longitudinal walls into several subsquare small cells. Phloem broad and cleft. Cambium less distinct. Vessels 3 - 10 grouped. Pith distinct. Parenchymatous cells containing minute needles of calcium oxalate.Jianlongdan: The tissues outside the endodermis mostly falling off. Vessels in xylem well developed, evenly and densely distributed. Pith absent.Powder: Yellowish-brownLongdan: Cells of exodermis spindle shaped in surface view, each cell divided by transverse walls into several small rectangular cells. Cells of endodermis subrectangular in surface view, fairly large, periclinal walls showing minute transverse striations, each cell divided by longitudinal septa walls into several small palisade-like cells, mostly longitudinal septa beaded. Parenchymatous cells containing minute needle crystal of calcium oxalate. Reticulate and scalariform vessels up to about 36 µm in diameter.Jianlongdan: Exodrmis absent, cells of endodermis subsquare or subrectangular, trasnverse striations of the periclinal walls relatively dense and thick. Some up to 3µm thick, each cells divided into several small palisade-like cells, septa slightly thickened or beaded.2.Macerate 0.5g of the powder in 5 ml of methanol for 4 - 5 hours, filter, concentrate the filtrate to about 2 ml and use it as the test solution. Dissolve gentiopicroside CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg per ml use as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel GF254 as the coating substance and ethyl acetate-methanol water (20:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 5 µl of each of the above two solutions to the plate, develop twice in the mobile phase. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under ultra violet light (254 nm). A spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in color and position to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solutions.Total ash: Not more than 7%

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into sections and dry.

Action  : To eliminate damp-heat and quench the fire of the liver and gall bladder.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 6 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place.

Synonymns for Gentiana manshurica

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Gentiana manshurica

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Gentiana manshurica in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Haiming Xiao, Xiaohong Sun, Renbin Liu, Zhiquan Chen, Zeyuan Lin, Yan Yang, Meng Zhang, Peiqing Liu, Shijian Quan, Heqing Huang
Gentiopicroside activates the bile acid receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) to repress NF-kappaB pathway and ameliorate diabetic nephropathy.
Pharmacol. Res.: 2020, 151;104559
[PubMed:31759089] [] [DOI] (I p)

Fangqing Chen, Lin Xie, Ran Kang, Rongrong Deng, Zhipeng Xi, Daoxi Sun, Jin Zhu, Liming Wang
Gentiopicroside inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways.
Biomed. Pharmacother.: 2018, 100;142-146
[PubMed:29428661] [] [DOI] (I p)

Xia Li, Yu Zhang, Quan Jin, Kai-Li Xia, Min Jiang, Ben-Wen Cui, Yan-Ling Wu, Shun-Zong Song, Li-Hua Lian, Ji-Xing Nan
Liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated regulation by gentiopicroside ameliorates P2X7 receptor-dependent alcoholic hepatosteatosis.
Br. J. Pharmacol.: 2018, 175(9);1451-1470
[PubMed:29338075] [] [DOI] (I p)

Shu Li, Qinglan Wang, Yanyan Tao, Chenghai Liu
Swertiamarin Attenuates Experimental Rat Hepatic Fibrosis by Suppressing Angiotensin II-Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor-Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.: 2016, 359(2);247-255
[PubMed:27543328] [] [DOI] (I p)

Jian Lv, Wei-Liang Gu, Chang-Xun Chen
Effect of gentiopicroside on experimental acute pancreatitis induced by retrograde injection of sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct in rats.
Fitoterapia: 2015, 102;127-33
[PubMed:25759121] [] [DOI] (I p)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects