Gentiana macrophylla

From Epilepsy Naturapedia
Jump to: navigation, search
P351 2.jpg
P351 1.jpg
Tcm191.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Gentiana macrophylla

Gentiana macrophylla in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Xiqinjiao Î÷ÇØÜ´ Zuoqinjiao ×óÇØÜ´ Chinese Name (pinyin): Qinjiao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Large-Leaf Gentian Root

Specific Name  : Radix gentianae macrophyllae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, removed from soil, Qinjiao and Mahuajiao are soften in the sun either pile up until the drug becomes reddish yellow or greyish yellow `on the surface, spread out and dried in the sun or sundried directly after collecting; as for "Xiaoqinjiao" the black bark is rubbed off while fresh and dried in the sun.

Description  : Qinjiao Subcylindrical, the upper part thick and the lower part thin, twisted, 10 - 30 cm long, 1 - 3 cm in diameter. Externally yellowish brown or greyish yellow with longitudinal or twisted wrinkles. Remains of stem bases and fibrous pericladium occurring at the apex. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken, fracture soft, bark yellow or brownish yellow, wood yellow. Odour characteristic, taste bitter and slightly astringent.Mahuajiao: Subconical, frequently expanded by some small roots gathered up to 7 cm in diameter. Externally dark brown, rough with fissures showing reticulated pits. Texture lax and fragile, easily broken, fracture frequently rotten-wood-shaped.Xiaqinjiao: Sub conical or subcylindrical, 8 - 15 cm long. ).2 - 1 cm in diameter. Externally brownish yellow. Main root frequently 1, having fibrous pericladia on the remains of the stem bases, often branched at the lower part, fracture yellowish white.

Identification  : 1.Macerate 2g of the coarse powder in 30 ml of chloroform-methanol-concentrated ammonia TS (75:25:5) for 2 hours and filter. Concentrate the filtrate on the water bath to about 1 ml. Add 2 ml of hydrochloric acid solution (1 mol/L) and continue to evaporate the chloroform, cool and filter. Transfer the filtrate to two test tubes, to 1 tube add mercuric potassium iodide TS, a pale yellowish white precipitate is produced, to another tube add potassium iodobismuthate TS, a brownish red precipitate is produced.2.Examine the fracture under ultra violet light (365 nm), a yellowish white or golden yellow fluorescence is shown.Extractives: Carry out the hot maceration method as described under the determination of ethanol-soluble extractives (Appendix X A) using ethanol as the solvent, not less than 24.0%.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dried in the sun.

Action  : To relieve rheumatic conditions, and to remove damp-heat.

Indication  : rheumatic or rheumatoid arthritis with muscular contracture and severe joint pain; daily recurring afternoon fever, fever in infants with malnutrition

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated and dry place.

P351 2.jpg
P351 1.jpg
Tcm191.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Gentiana macrophylla

Gentiana macrophylla in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Xiqinjiao Î÷ÇØÜ´ Zuoqinjiao ×óÇØÜ´ Chinese Name (pinyin): Qinjiao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Large-Leaf Gentian Root

Specific Name  : Radix gentianae macrophyllae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, removed from soil, Qinjiao and Mahuajiao are soften in the sun either pile up until the drug becomes reddish yellow or greyish yellow `on the surface, spread out and dried in the sun or sundried directly after collecting; as for "Xiaoqinjiao" the black bark is rubbed off while fresh and dried in the sun.

Description  : Qinjiao Subcylindrical, the upper part thick and the lower part thin, twisted, 10 - 30 cm long, 1 - 3 cm in diameter. Externally yellowish brown or greyish yellow with longitudinal or twisted wrinkles. Remains of stem bases and fibrous pericladium occurring at the apex. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken, fracture soft, bark yellow or brownish yellow, wood yellow. Odour characteristic, taste bitter and slightly astringent.Mahuajiao: Subconical, frequently expanded by some small roots gathered up to 7 cm in diameter. Externally dark brown, rough with fissures showing reticulated pits. Texture lax and fragile, easily broken, fracture frequently rotten-wood-shaped.Xiaqinjiao: Sub conical or subcylindrical, 8 - 15 cm long. ).2 - 1 cm in diameter. Externally brownish yellow. Main root frequently 1, having fibrous pericladia on the remains of the stem bases, often branched at the lower part, fracture yellowish white.

Identification  : 1.Macerate 2g of the coarse powder in 30 ml of chloroform-methanol-concentrated ammonia TS (75:25:5) for 2 hours and filter. Concentrate the filtrate on the water bath to about 1 ml. Add 2 ml of hydrochloric acid solution (1 mol/L) and continue to evaporate the chloroform, cool and filter. Transfer the filtrate to two test tubes, to 1 tube add mercuric potassium iodide TS, a pale yellowish white precipitate is produced, to another tube add potassium iodobismuthate TS, a brownish red precipitate is produced.2.Examine the fracture under ultra violet light (365 nm), a yellowish white or golden yellow fluorescence is shown.Extractives: Carry out the hot maceration method as described under the determination of ethanol-soluble extractives (Appendix X A) using ethanol as the solvent, not less than 24.0%.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dried in the sun.

Action  : To relieve rheumatic conditions, and to remove damp-heat.

Indication  : rheumatic or rheumatoid arthritis with muscular contracture and severe joint pain; daily recurring afternoon fever, fever in infants with malnutrition

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated and dry place.

Synonymns for Gentiana macrophylla

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Gentiana macrophylla

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Gentiana macrophylla in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Shu-Bing Hou, Xin Wang, Rong Huang, Huan Liu, Hai-Min Hu, Wen-Yi Hu, Si-Tong Lv, Huan Zhao, Guang Chen
Seven new chemical constituents from the roots of Gentiana macrophylla pall.
Fitoterapia: 2020, 141;104476
[PubMed:31927012] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Hui Wang, Wei Wei, Xiaobing Lan, Ning Liu, Yuxiang Li, Hanxiang Ma, Tao Sun, Xiaodong Peng, Chunlin Zhuang, Jianqiang Yu
Neuroprotective Effect of Swertiamain on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inducing the Nrf2 Protective Pathway.
ACS Chem Neurosci: 2019, 10(5);2276-2286
[PubMed:30753053] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Xinxin Zhang, Guanqun Zhan, Ming Jin, Hui Zhang, Jun Dang, Yan Zhang, Zengjun Guo, Yoichiro Ito
Botany, traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and authentication of Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae-A traditional medicine: A review.
Phytomedicine: 2018, 46;142-163
[PubMed:30097114] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Wenzheng Ding, Hanxue Wang, Quan Zhou, Jinrong Wu, Xuemei Cheng, Changhong Wang
Establishment and application of a new HPLC qualitative and quantitative assay for Gentiana Macrophyllae Radix based on characteristic constituents of anofinic acid and its derivatives.
Biomed. Chromatogr.: 2018, 32(11);e4341
[PubMed:30007052] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Ya-Ting Deng, Xin-Shang Wang, Ming-Gao Zhao, Xuan-Xuan Huang, Xiao-Li Xu
Gentiopicroside protects neurons from astrocyte-mediated inflammatory injuries by inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.
Neuroreport: 2018, 29(13);1114-1120
[PubMed:29958245] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects