Gastrodia elata

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P68 2.jpg
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Other Names:

Historical Use of Gastrodia elata

Gastrodia elata in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Mingtianma Ã÷ÌìÂé Tianmapian ÌìÂéƬ Chinese Name (pinyin): Tianma

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Gastrodia Tuber

Specific Name  : Rhizoma gastrodiae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected from winter to next spring, wash clean immediately, steamed thoroughly, spread out and dried at a low temperature.

Description  : Ellipsoid or star shaped, slightly compressed shrunken and somewhat curve, 3 - 15 cm long, 1.5 - 6 cm wide, 0.5 - 2 cm thick. Externally yellowish white to pale yellowish brown with longitudinal wrinkles and many transverse annulations arranged by latent buds, sometimes brown funiculi visible. Apex with reddish brown to deep brown, parrot-beak like buds or remains of stem, the lower end with a rounded scar. Texture hard and uneasily broken, fracture fairly even, yellowish white to brownish horny, odour slight, taste sweetish.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Remains of epidermis present, hypordemis of 2 - 3 rows of suberized and tangentially elongated cells. Cortex consisting of over 10 rows of polygonal cells, some containing raphides of calcium oxalate. In older tubers 2 - 3 rows of elliptical sclerenchymatous cells present in cortex adjacent to hypodermis with lignified and obviously pitted walls. Stele large, scattered through out numereous small amphicribral vascular bundles, parenchymatous cells containing raphides of calcium oxalate. Cells of pith subrounded and pitted.Powder: Yellowish-white to yellowish brown. Sclerenchymatous cells elliptical or subpolygonal. 70 - 180µm in diameter, walls 3 - 8 µm in thickness, lignified, distinctly pitted. Needle crystal of calcium oxalate in bundles or scattered, 25 - 75 - 93 µm long. When mounted in Smith's starch reagent, parenchymatous cells containing gelatinized polysaccharides colorless and some cells containing long ovoid, long ellipsoid or subrounded granules, showing a brown or brownish purple color on adding iodine solution. Spiral reticulate and annual vessels 8 - 30 µm in diameter.2.Macerate 1 g of the powder in 10 ml of water for 4 hour with constant shaking and filter. To the filtrate add 2 - 4 drops of iodine TS, a violet red to wine red color is produced.3.Heat under reflux 0.2 g of the powder in 10 ml of ethanol for 1 hour and filter. Transfer 1 ml of the filtrate to a 10ml volumetric flask, dilute with ethanol to volume and mix well. Carry out the method for spectrophometry (Appendix V A). The light absorption of the solution exhibits a maximum at about 270 nm or a peak with shoulder. Transfer another 1 ml of the filtrate to a 25ml volumetric flask, dilute with ethanol to volume, add and mix well. The light absorption of the solution exhibits maximum within the range of 219 -224 nm.Assay: Carry out the high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix V1 D).Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use octadecysilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and methanol phosphate buffer (containing each of 0.1 mol/L of potassium dihydrogenphosphate and disodium hydrogen phosphate)-water (1.5:3:95.5) as the mobile phase. The wavelength of the detector is 270 nm. The number of the theoretical plates of the column is not less than 1500 calculated with the reference to the peak of gastrodin.Preparation of reference solution: Weigh accurately gastrodine CRS (dried at 80ºC for 1 hour) 25 mg in a 25 ml volumetric flask, dissolve and dillute with methanol to volume and mix well (continuing 1 mg of gastrodin per ml)Preparation of test solution: Weigh accurately 0.5g of the powder, dried at 80ºC for 1 hour, in a 10 ml volumetric flask, add accurately 5 ml of methanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes and allow to stand for 24 hours. Ultrasonicate for another 15 minutes after shaking, mix well and allow to stand. Centrifuge the supernatant liquid and use as the test solution.Procedure: Inject accurately 5 µl of each of the reference solution and the test solution respectively into the column determine and calculate the content. It contains not less than 0.10% gastrodin (C13H18O7) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Wash clean soften thoroughly or steamed to soften, cut into thin slices and dry.

Action  : To subdue the liver-wind and arrest convulsion; epilepsy; tetnus.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Gastrodia elata

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Gastrodia elata

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Gastrodia elata in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Peng He, Yiwen Hu, Changzhao Huang, Xi Wang, Heng Zhang, Xianping Zhang, Houjie Dai, Ruiying Wang, Yan Gao
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: 2020, 2020;1658618
[PubMed:32063980] [] [DOI] (P e)

Yuan-Yuan Li, Shun-Xing Guo, Yung-I Lee
Ultrastructural changes during the symbiotic seed germination of Gastrodia elata with fungi, with emphasis on the fungal colonization region.
Bot Stud: 2020, 61(1);4
[PubMed:32052210] [] [DOI] (P e)

Surya Diantina, Craig McGill, James Millner, Jayanthi Nadarajan, Hugh W Pritchard, Andrea Clavijo McCormick
Comparative Seed Morphology of Tropical and Temperate Orchid Species with Different Growth Habits.
Plants (Basel): 2020, 9(2);
[PubMed:32013075] [] [DOI] (P e)

Jia-Yu Xue, Tao Zhao, Yang Liu, Yang Liu, Yong-Xia Zhang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Hongfeng Chen, Guang-Can Zhou, Shou-Zhou Zhang, Zhu-Qing Shao
Genome- Wide Analysis of the Nucleotide Binding Site Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes of Four Orchids Revealed Extremely Low Numbers of Disease Resistance Genes.
Front Genet: 2019, 10;1286
[PubMed:31998358] [] [DOI] (P e)

Zhiqi Wen, Mingzhen He, Chunyan Peng, Yifei Rao, Junmao Li, Zhifeng Li, Lijun Du, Yan Li, Maofu Zhou, Ouyang Hui, Yulin Feng, Shilin Yang
Front Pharmacol: 2019, 10;1425
[PubMed:31920639] [] [DOI] (P e)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects