Digitalis purpurea

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Digitalis purpurea

Digitalis purpurea in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Yangdihuangye

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Digitalis Leaf

Specific Name  : Folium Digitalis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in early summer before flowering and dried quickly below 60ºC.

Description  : Mostly crumpled and broken when whole, ovate lanceolate to broadly ovate, 10 - 40cm long, 4 - 10cm wide. Margin obtuse serrate, upper surface dark green slightly pubescent, veins sunken, lower surface pale greyish green, densely pubescent, veins reficulated, distinctly prominent. Basal leaves long petioled, stem leaves short petioled or sessile, base decurrent, transverse section flattened triangular, texture fragile, odor slight, taste bitter.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: a single row of short palisade cells and 5 - 6 rows of spongy cells. Midrib sunken on the upper surface and distinctly prominent on the lower surface, vasacular bundles collateral. Pericycle collenchymous cells enclosed within 1 - 2 rows of parenchymatous cells containing stach granules, 2 - 5 rows of collenchymous cells occurring on the inner sides or upper epidermis and lower epidermis. Powder: yellowish green or greyish green, non-glandular hairs 2 - 7 celledqith fine and warty protrudings on the surface, apical cells obtuse-rounded often 1 - 2 cells collapsed in the middle. Glandular hairs with a bicellular head and a 1 - 2 celled stalk or unicellular head and a 1 - 4 celled stalk. Anticlinal walls of lower epidermal cells sinous. Stomata anomocytic with 3 - 4 subsidiary cells.2.To 0.5g of the powder add 30ml of dilute ethanol, boil for 2 minutes, cool, add 5 drops of alkaline lead acetate TS and filter. Add 10ml of chloroform layer and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in the test tube with 2ml of a solution of ferric chloride in glacial acetic acid prepared by adding 1 drop of ferric chloride TS to 10ml of glacial acetic acid. Add 2ml of sulfuric acid slowly along the wall, a reddish brown color is produced immediately at the junction of the two layers. The glacial acetic acid layer changes to bluish green gradually after several minutes.3.To 1g of the powder add 3ml of water, stand for 1.5 hours on a water bath at 35ºC, add 20ml of 60% ethanol for 10 minutes, cool and cetrifuge. Extract the supernatant solution with 2 quantities each of 15ml of chloroform and wash the combined chloroform extracts with 5ml of 2% sodium hydroxide solution. Allow to stand, discard the alkaline solution, wash again with 10ml of water, dry the chloroform solution over anhydrous sodium sulfate (cetrifuge if necessary) filter and evaporate, the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 2ml of chloroform as the test solution. Disolve digitoxin CRS and gitoxin CRS in chloroform to produce a solution containing 1mg of digitoxin and 0.4mg of gitoxin per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and ethyl acetate-methanol- water (16:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate in strips 10 - 20µl of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and spray with a mixture of 25% trichlotoacetic acid in ethanol and 1% chloroaminum T solution (8:2). Heat at 105ºC for 10 minutes, examine under ultra violet light (365nm), the fluorescent strips due to digitoxin and gitoxin in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the strips obtained i9th the reference solution.Water: carry out the method for determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 1) not more than 6.0% of water.Total ash: not more than 10.0% (appendix lX K)Assay: Carry out the biological assay of digitalis (Appendix Xl V) the estimated potency per g is not less than 10 digitalis units.

Processing  :

Action  :

Indication  : cardiotonic

Precautions  :

Dosage  :

Storage  :

Synonymns for Digitalis purpurea

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Digitalis purpurea

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Digitalis purpurea in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Jin-Ling Fu, Qiong Yu, Meng-Di Li, Chun-Mei Hu, Guang Shi
Deleterious cardiovascular effect of exosome in digitalis-treated decompensated congestive heart failure.
J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.: 2020;e22462
[PubMed:32045083] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Marilén Federico, Carlos A Valverde, Alicia Mattiazzi, Julieta Palomeque
##Title##
Front Physiol: 2019, 10;1630
[PubMed:32038301] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Baradwaj Gopal Ravi, Mary Grace E Guardian, Rebecca Dickman, Zhen Q Wang
Profiling and structural analysis of cardenolides in two species of Digitalis using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A: 2020;460903
[PubMed:32035664] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Renato Pejic, Marija Simic Prskalo, Josip Simic
Ocular Hypotonia and Transient Decrease of Vision as a Consequence of Exposure to a Common Toad Poison.
Case Rep Ophthalmol Med: 2020, 2020;2983947
[PubMed:32015920] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Hein J Wellens
A 78-year-old woman with heart failure.
Heart Rhythm: 2020, 17(2);349-350
[PubMed:31973876] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects