Citrus wilsonii

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus wilsonii

Citrus wilsonii in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Chaozhishi ³´è×ʵ Xiaozhishi Сè×ʵ Chinese Name (pinyin): Zhishi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Immature Bitter Orange

Specific Name  : Fructus aurantii immaturus

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fallen fruit is collected in May and June, removed from foreign matter, cut transversely in the middle into two parts, dried in the sun or at low temperature. The small fruit dried similarly without cutting.

Description  : Semispheroidal, few spheroidal, 0.5 - 2.5cm in diameter. Exocartp dark green or dark brownish green with glandular protrudings and wrinkles, remains of the style or fruit stalk scar distinct, mesocarp in transverse section slightly expanded, yellowish white or yellowish brown, 3.0 - 1.2cm thick with 1 - 2 rows of oil cavities on the outer part, endocarp and juice vesicles brown. Texture hard, odor aromatic, taste bitter and slightly sour.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Pale yellow or brownish yellow. Cells of mesocarp subrounded or irregular, most cell walls unevenly thickened and beaded. Epidermal cells of pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular in surface view, stomata subrounded, 18 - 26µm in diameter, subsidiary cells 5 - 9, covered with cuticle in lateral view. Prisms of calcium oxalate existing cells of pericarp and juice vesicles mostly visible in cells adjacent to epidermis, rhombic, polygonal or biconical, 2 - 24µm in diameter. Parenchymatous cells containing yellow or colorless hesperidin crystals in rounded or amorphous masses some with radial striations. Fragments of oil cavity abundant, secretory cells slender and curved. Spiral and reticulated vessels and tracheids small.2.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 10ml of methanol under reflux for 10 minutes and filter. To 1ml of the filtrate add about 5mg of potassium tetrahydroborate, mix well and add several drops of hydrochloric acid, a cherry red to purplish red colour is produced. 3.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 5ml of methanol under reflux for 1 hour. Allow to cool, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 4ml of methanol and filtrate, use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve synephrine CRS in methanol to prepare solution containing 3mg per ml, use as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel H with sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the coating substance and methanol-acetone-chloroform-concentrated ammonia TS (3:4:13:0.5) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 10µl of each of the two solution to the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 0.5% solution of ninhydrin in ethanol and heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in p[osition and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Total ash: not more than 7.0%

Processing  : Immature Orange fruit, eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry.Stir fry with bran: stir fry the slices as describe under the method for stir frying with bran until deep color is produced.

Action  : To eliminate stagnation of qi, resolve phlegm and relieve stuffiness sensation in the chest and abdomen.

Indication  :

Precautions  : Used with caution in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

P335 3.jpg
P336 1.jpg


Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus wilsonii

Citrus wilsonii in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Chinese Name (pinyin): Xiangyuan

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Citron Fruit

Specific Name  : Fructus citri

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn when ripe, cut fresh, dried in the sun or at a low temperature. The fruit of Citrus wilsonii can be use wholly or cut in the middle into two parts, dried in the sun or at a low temperature.

Description  : Fruit of Citrus Medica: rounded or oblong slices, 4 - 10cm in diameter, 0.2 - 0.5cm thick. In transverse slices, the exocarp yellow or yellowish green, the edge sinuous, scattering with sunken oil spots, mesocarp 1 - 3cm thick, yellowish white, with irregular reticulated prominent vascular bundles, huice vesicles separated in 10 - 17 loculi. In longitudinal slices, the stele relatively thick. Texture soft and pliable, odor aromatic, taste slightly sweet, bitter and pungent.

Identification  :

Processing  : Break the whole one to pieces, soften the slices thoroughly. Cut into slivers and dry in the air.

Action  : To regulate the flow of qi in the liver, spleen and stomach, and to resolve phlegm.

Indication  : stagnation of the liver and stomach qi manifested by distending pain in the chest and hypochondria, fullness and stuffiness sensation in the epigastrium, vomiting and belching, cough with copious expectoration

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from mould and moth.

Synonymns for Citrus wilsonii

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Citrus wilsonii

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Citrus wilsonii in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Liping Cheng, Yujie Ren, Dingbo Lin, Shu'ang Peng, Bo Zhong, Zhaocheng Ma
The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka Extract in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 and Primary Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells.
Molecules: 2017, 22(7);
[PubMed:28753918] [] [DOI] (I e)

Jing-hua Su, Chao Zhang, Lei Sun, Bing-ren Gu, Shuang-cheng Ma
[Identification of two varieties of Citri Fructus by fingerprint and chemometrics].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi: 2015, 40(12);2318-24
[PubMed:26591517] [] (P p)

Yan Wua, Hai-Ping Chenb, Jian-Yu Wei, Kai Yang, Zhao-Fu Tian, Xiao-Lan Li, Ping-Juan Wang, Cheng-Fang Wang, Shu-Shan Du, Qian Cai
Repellent Constituents of essential oil from Citrus wilsonii stem barks against Tribolium castaneum.
Nat Prod Commun: 2014, 9(10);1515-8
[PubMed:25522550] [] (P p)

Pan Zhao, Li Duan, Long Guo, Li-Li Dou, Xin Dong, Ping Zhou, Ping Li, E-Hu Liu
Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.
Food Chem: 2015, 173;54-60
[PubMed:25465994] [] [DOI] (I p)

Silvija Cerni, Jelena Ruscić, Gustavo Nolasco, Zivko Gatin, Mladen Krajacić, Dijana Skorić
Stem pitting and seedling yellows symptoms of Citrus tristeza virus infection may be determined by minor sequence variants.
Virus Genes: 2008, 36(1);241-9
[PubMed:18074213] [] [DOI] (P p)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects