Citrus sinensis

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Tcm53.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus sinensis

Citrus sinensis in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chaozhishi ³´è×ʵ Xiaozhishi Сè×ʵ Chinese Name (pinyin): Zhishi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Immature Bitter Orange

Specific Name  : Fructus aurantii immaturus

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fallen fruit is collected in May and June, removed from foreign matter, cut transversely in the middle into two parts, dried in the sun or at low temperature. The small fruit dried similarly without cutting.

Description  : Semispheroidal, few spheroidal, 0.5 - 2.5cm in diameter. Exocartp dark green or dark brownish green with glandular protrudings and wrinkles, remains of the style or fruit stalk scar distinct, mesocarp in transverse section slightly expanded, yellowish white or yellowish brown, 3.0 - 1.2cm thick with 1 - 2 rows of oil cavities on the outer part, endocarp and juice vesicles brown. Texture hard, odor aromatic, taste bitter and slightly sour.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Pale yellow or brownish yellow. Cells of mesocarp subrounded or irregular, most cell walls unevenly thickened and beaded. Epidermal cells of pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular in surface view, stomata subrounded, 18 - 26µm in diameter, subsidiary cells 5 - 9, covered with cuticle in lateral view. Prisms of calcium oxalate existing cells of pericarp and juice vesicles mostly visible in cells adjacent to epidermis, rhombic, polygonal or biconical, 2 - 24µm in diameter. Parenchymatous cells containing yellow or colorless hesperidin crystals in rounded or amorphous masses some with radial striations. Fragments of oil cavity abundant, secretory cells slender and curved. Spiral and reticulated vessels and tracheids small.2.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 10ml of methanol under reflux for 10 minutes and filter. To 1ml of the filtrate add about 5mg of potassium tetrahydroborate, mix well and add several drops of hydrochloric acid, a cherry red to purplish red colour is produced. 3.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 5ml of methanol under reflux for 1 hour. Allow to cool, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 4ml of methanol and filtrate, use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve synephrine CRS in methanol to prepare solution containing 3mg per ml, use as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel H with sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the coating substance and methanol-acetone-chloroform-concentrated ammonia TS (3:4:13:0.5) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 10µl of each of the two solution to the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 0.5% solution of ninhydrin in ethanol and heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in p[osition and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Total ash: not more than 7.0%

Processing  : Immature Orange fruit, eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry.Stir fry with bran: stir fry the slices as describe under the method for stir frying with bran until deep color is produced.

Action  : To eliminate stagnation of qi, resolve phlegm and relieve stuffiness sensation in the chest and abdomen.

Indication  :

Precautions  : Used with caution in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Tcm53.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus sinensis

Citrus sinensis in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chaozhishi ³´è×ʵ Xiaozhishi Сè×ʵ Chinese Name (pinyin): Zhishi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Immature Bitter Orange

Specific Name  : Fructus aurantii immaturus

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fallen fruit is collected in May and June, removed from foreign matter, cut transversely in the middle into two parts, dried in the sun or at low temperature. The small fruit dried similarly without cutting.

Description  : Semispheroidal, few spheroidal, 0.5 - 2.5cm in diameter. Exocartp dark green or dark brownish green with glandular protrudings and wrinkles, remains of the style or fruit stalk scar distinct, mesocarp in transverse section slightly expanded, yellowish white or yellowish brown, 3.0 - 1.2cm thick with 1 - 2 rows of oil cavities on the outer part, endocarp and juice vesicles brown. Texture hard, odor aromatic, taste bitter and slightly sour.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Pale yellow or brownish yellow. Cells of mesocarp subrounded or irregular, most cell walls unevenly thickened and beaded. Epidermal cells of pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular in surface view, stomata subrounded, 18 - 26µm in diameter, subsidiary cells 5 - 9, covered with cuticle in lateral view. Prisms of calcium oxalate existing cells of pericarp and juice vesicles mostly visible in cells adjacent to epidermis, rhombic, polygonal or biconical, 2 - 24µm in diameter. Parenchymatous cells containing yellow or colorless hesperidin crystals in rounded or amorphous masses some with radial striations. Fragments of oil cavity abundant, secretory cells slender and curved. Spiral and reticulated vessels and tracheids small.2.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 10ml of methanol under reflux for 10 minutes and filter. To 1ml of the filtrate add about 5mg of potassium tetrahydroborate, mix well and add several drops of hydrochloric acid, a cherry red to purplish red colour is produced. 3.Heat 0.5g of the powder with 5ml of methanol under reflux for 1 hour. Allow to cool, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 4ml of methanol and filtrate, use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve synephrine CRS in methanol to prepare solution containing 3mg per ml, use as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel H with sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the coating substance and methanol-acetone-chloroform-concentrated ammonia TS (3:4:13:0.5) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 10µl of each of the two solution to the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 0.5% solution of ninhydrin in ethanol and heat at 105ºC for about 10 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in p[osition and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Total ash: not more than 7.0%

Processing  : Immature Orange fruit, eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry.Stir fry with bran: stir fry the slices as describe under the method for stir frying with bran until deep color is produced.

Action  : To eliminate stagnation of qi, resolve phlegm and relieve stuffiness sensation in the chest and abdomen.

Indication  :

Precautions  : Used with caution in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Citrus sinensis

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Citrus sinensis

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Citrus sinensis in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Qiang Li, Wanfu Dou, Jingjing Qi, Xiujuan Qin, Shanchun Chen, Yongrui He
##Title##
J. Genet.: 2020, 99;
[PubMed:32089529] [WorldCat.org] (I p)

Muhammad Junaid Rao, Yuantao Xu, Xiaomei Tang, Yue Huang, Jihong Liu, Xiuxin Deng, Qiang Xu
##Title##
Antioxidants (Basel): 2020, 9(2);
[PubMed:32079281] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Márcio Santos Soares, Danielle Fernandes da Silva, Jéssica Cristina Amaral, Michelli Masaroli da Silva, Moacir Rossi Forim, Edson Rodrigues-Filho, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva, João Batista Fernandes, Marcos Antônio Machado, Alessandra Alves de Souza, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
Rapid differentiation of graft Citrus sinensis with and without Xylella fastidiosa infection by mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.: 2020;
[PubMed:32053855] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Xiangfeng Meng, Hui Liu, Wenqiang Xu, Weixin Zhang, Zheng Wang, Weifeng Liu
Metabolic engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for de novo production of the sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone.
Microb. Cell Fact.: 2020, 19(1);21
[PubMed:32013959] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Can Guo, Youxia Shan, Zhiqiang Yang, Linyan Zhang, Wei Ling, Yan Liang, Zhigang Ouyang, Balian Zhong, Jun Zhang
Chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, and tyrosinase inhibition activity of extracts from Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) peel.
J. Sci. Food Agric.: 2020;
[PubMed:31997352] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects