Citrus reticulata

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus reticulata

Citrus reticulata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Juhong

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Red Tangerine Peel

Specific Name  : Exocarpium citri rubrum

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The ripe fruit is collected in late autumn and early winter, the exocarp is splited and collected, dried in the sun or in the shade.

Description  : Long stripes or irregular thin slices, margin shrunken and curved inward. The outer surface yellowish brown or orange red, becoming dark brown on storage with numerous yellowish-white oil cavities. The inner surface yellowish white with numerous sunken and transparent small spots. Texture fragile, easily broken, odour aromatic, taste slightly bitter and numb.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Pale yellowish brown, epidermal cells of the pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular on surface view, anticlinal walls thickened, stomata subrounded, 18-26µm in diameter. Subsidiary cells indistinct, covered with cuticle in side view and the outer part of the radial walls thickened. The walls of parenchymatous cells surrounding the fragments of oil cavities slightly thickened.2.To 0.3g of the powder add 10ml of methanol, heat under reflux for 20 minutes, concentrate 5ml of the filtrate to 1ml as the test solution. Dissolve hesperidin CRS in methanol to produce a saturated solution as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and ethyl acetate-methanol-water (100:17:3) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2µl of each of the two solution. After the developing (about 3cm) and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and then use tobelence-ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (20:10:1:1, supernatant) as the mobile phase, after developing (about 8cm) and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with aluminum chloride, examine under ultra violet light (365nm). The fluorecescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in colour and position to spot in the chromatogram obtained with rerference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, cut into slices.

Action  : To dispel cold, eliminate damp and phlegm, and arrest emesis or nausea.

Indication  : cough, itching of the throat and profuse expectoration in colds; nausea, vomiting and epigastric distendion caused by improper diet or excessive drinking

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from moth.

Tcm p5514 01 006.jpg
Tcm369.jpg
Tcm325.jpg
P241 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus reticulata

Citrus reticulata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chenpi ³ÂƤ Guangchenpi ¹ã³ÂƤ Guangpi ¹ãƤ Xinhuipi лáƤ Chinese Name (pinyin): Jupi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Tangerine Peel

Specific Name  : Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae

Scientific Name:
Collection  :

Description  :

Identification  :

Processing  :

Action  :

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3-10g

Storage  :

Tcm p5514 01 006.jpg
Tcm369.jpg
Tcm325.jpg
P241 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus reticulata

Citrus reticulata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Chenpi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Dried tangerine peel

Specific Name  : Pericarpium citri reticulatae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is subdivided into two classes, known respectively as "Chenpi and "Guang Chenpi" The pericarp is peeled off when the fruit is ripe and dried in the sun or at low temperature.

Description  : Chenpi; often peeled inseveral lobes connecting at the base or in irregular slices. 1 - 4mm thick. Outer surface orange red to reddish brown with fine wrinkles and sunken oil cavity spots, inner surface pale yellowish white, rough, bearing yellowish white or yellowish brown vein like vascular bundles. Texture slightly hard and fragile. Odour taste, pungent and bitter.Guang chenpi: Often in three lobes connected at the base, regular in shape and even in thickness, about 1mm thick when observed against light. Texture slightly soft.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Yellowish white to yellowish brown. Parenchymatous cells of mesocarp numerous, cells irregular with unevenly thickened walls, sometimes beaded. Epidermal cells of pericarp polygonal, subsquare or rectangular in surface view, anticlinal walls, thickened stomata subrunded, 18 - 26µm in diameter, subsidiary cells indistinct, covered with cuticule in lateral view and theouter radial with thickened. Numerous prisms of calcium oxalate containing in parenchymatous cells of the mesocarp, polygonal, rhombicc or biconical. 3 - 34µm in diameter, 5 - 53µm long. Sometyimes two parallel polygonal crystals or 3 - 5 prisms occurring in one cell. Crystal of hesperidin mostly present in parenchymatous cells. Yellow or colorless in spheroid or amorphous masses, some crystals with radial striations. Spiral, pitted and reticulated vessels and tracheids small.2.To 0.3g of the powder add 10ml of methanol, heat under reflux for 20 minutes, filter. To 1ml of the filtrate, add a small quantity of magnesium powder and 1ml of hydrochloric acid, a red colour is produced gtradually.3.Concentrate 5ml of the filtrate obtained from identification (2) to about 1ml as the test solution. Prepare a saturated solution of hesperidin CRS in methanol as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G with 0.5% solution of sodium hydroxide as the coating substance and ethyl acetate-methanol-water (100:17:13) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 2µl of each of the two soloutions. After developing for about 3cm and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Using the upper layer of toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (20:10:1:1) as the mobile phase. After developing again about 8cm and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, Spray with aluminum chloride TS and examine under ultra violet light (365nm). The fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Weigh accurately about 1g of the powder (through No.3 sieve) into a Soxlhlet extrctor [perform a determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 2)]. Add 100ml of petroleum ether (boiling range 30 - 60ºC), heat under reflux on a water bath for 1 hour and discard the petroleum ether solution. Add 120ml of methanol, heat under reflux on a water bath for 4 hours. Transfer the extract to an evaporating dish. Wash the container with small quantity of methanol, combine the washing with extract and evaporate the combined solution to dryness on a water bath. To the residue add 5ml of water, stir well, evaporate to dryness, treat once more in the same manner. Wash the residue with 5ml of water, stir well, allow it to stand for 10 minutes, filter through a Gooch crucible, wash the residue with 4 quantities of 5 ml of water and discard the washings. Dissolve the residue in 75% ethanol containing 0.1% of sodium hydroxide solution in portions, transfer the solution to 100 ml volumetric flask, add the above alkaline 1ml of the supernatant to a 25ml volumetric flask. Add the same alkaline ethanolic solution to volume and mix well. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry (Appendix V A). After 1 hour, counted from the beginning of dissolution of the residue, measure the absorbance at 362nm. 166 as the value of A(1%,1cm). It contains not less than 3.0% of hespiridin (C28H35O15) calculated on dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, spray with water, soften thoroughly, cut into slivers and dry in the shade.

Action  : To regulate the flow of qi, to invigorate the spleen function, to eliminate damp, and to resolve phlegm.

Indication  : distension and sensation of fullness in the chest and epigastrium with anorexia, vomiting and diarrhea; cough with copious phlegm

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place, protected from mould and moth.

Tcm p5514 01 006.jpg
Tcm369.jpg
Tcm325.jpg
P241 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus reticulata

Citrus reticulata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Junqingpi ¾ùÇàƤ Xiaoqingpi СÇàƤ Chinese Name (pinyin): Qingpi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Green Tangerine Orange Peel

Specific Name  : Pericarpium citri reticulatae viride

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The fallen young fruit is collected in May and June. Dried in the sun and known commonly as "Geqingpi". The immature fruit is collected in July and August, cut longitudinally into four valve but connected at the base, removed from the emergence completely and dried in the sun and known commonly as :Sihuaqingpi"

Description  : Sihuaqingpi: Pericarp cut into four proteelliptic lobes, long elliptical, 4 - 6cm long, 0.1 - 0.2cm thick. The outer surface greyish green or blackish green with numerous oil cavities, the inner surface almost white or yellowish white, rough with yellowish white or yellowish brown veins. Texture slightly hard, easily broken, fracture showing 1 - 2 layers of oil cavities at the outer part. Odour aromatic, taste bitter and pungent.Geqingpi: Subspheroidal, 0.5 - 2cm in diameter, externally greyish green or blackish green, slightly rough with numerous fine and sunken oil cavities. Remains of style slightly projecting at the apex and a rounded scar of fruit stalk at the base. Texture hard, fractured pericarp yellowish white or pale yellowish brown. 1 - 2mm thick with 1 - 2 layers of oil cavities at the outer part. Pulp vescles 8 - 10, pale brown, odour delicately aromatic, taste sour, bitter and pungent.

Identification  : 1.Sihuaqingpi powder: Greyish green or pale greyish brown. Parenchyma of mesocarp numerous, irregular, walls slightly thickened and some beaded. Epidermal cells of epicarp polygonal or subsquare in surface view, anticlinal walls thickened, stomata oblong, 20 - 28µm in diameter, subsidiary cells 5 - 7, covered with cuticle in lateral view. The outer radial walls slightly thickened. Prisms of calcium oxalate occurring in parenchymatous cells adjacent to the epidermis, polygonal, rhombic or square. 24 - 32µm long, crystal of hesperidin brownish yellow, hemispherical, subrounded or in irregular masses. Spiral and reticulated vessels small.Geqingpi: Epidermal cells of pulp vesicle narrowly prolate, thin walls, some sligtly sinous, containing prisms of calcium oxalate, similar to those of pericarp in size, also containing crystal of hesperidin.2.To 0.3g of the powder add 10 ml of methanol, heat under reflux for 20 minutes and filter. To 1ml of the filtrate add small amount of magnesium powder and several drops of hydrochloric acid, a cherry red colour is produced gradually.3.Take 5ml of the filtrate obtained under the test for Identification (2), concentrated to about 1ml as the test solution and a saturated solution of hesperidin CRS in methanol as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G prepared with o.5% sodium hydroxide solution as the coating substance and ethyl acetate-methanol-water (100:17:13) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 2µl of each of the two solutions. After developing for about 3cm and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, and then using the upper layer of methylbenzene-ethyl acetate methanoic acid-water (20:10:1:1) as the mobile phase. After developing for about 8cm and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with aluminum chloride TS. Examine under ultra violet light (365nm) after the methanol evaporated. The fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution, correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices or slivers and dry in the sun.Processed with vinegar: Stir fry the slices and slivers as describe under the method for stir frying with vinegar (Appendix ll D) to slightly yellow, using 15kg of vinegar per 100 kg of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride.

Action  : To soothe the liver, to disintegrate stagnated qi, and to remove retained food.

Indication  : distending pain in the chest and costal regions; hernia; mass formation in the breast; mastitis; abdominal pain due to retention of undigested food

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place.

Tcm p5514 01 006.jpg
Tcm369.jpg
Tcm325.jpg
P241 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Citrus reticulata

Citrus reticulata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Juhe

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Tangerine Seed

Specific Name  : Semen citri reticulatae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected after the fruit is ripened, wash clean and dried in the sun.

Description  : Slightly ovoid, 8 - 12 mm long, 4 - 6 mm in diameter. Externally pale yellowish white or pale greenish white, smoothy with raphe line on one side. One end obtuse rounded and the other end acuminate and small stalk shape. Testa thin, tenacious, endotesta thin, pale brown, 2 cotyledons, yellowish green, oily. Slight odor and bitter taste.

Identification  : Transverse section: Epidermal cells of testa consisting of rows of mucilage cells with 1 row of palisade arranged sclerenchymatous cells underneath, outer walls even or with a tail like convex at the upper end, cell walls lignified, pitted and uneven in thickness, cells of pigment layer containing orange yellow or yellowish brown contents and prisms of calcium oxalate. 7 - 16µm in diameter, endosperm cells 3 - 4 rows, some cell walls beaded containing moil droplets. Cotyledon cells containing fine clusters of prism oxalate, oil droplets and rosette crystals of hesperidin.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matters, wash, clean and dry. Break into pieces before use.Processed with salt: Stir fry as describe under the method for stir frying with slat (Appendix ll D) to dryness and break into pieces before use.

Action  : To regulate the flow of qi, cause subsidence of nodulation, and relieve pain.

Indication  : hernia; painful swelling of the testis; mastitis with formation of painful nodules

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place, protected from mould and moth.

Synonymns for Citrus reticulata

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Citrus reticulata

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Citrus reticulata in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Shahenda Mahgoub, Anas O Sallam, Hazem K A Sarhan, Amal A A Ammar, Sameh H Soror
Role of Diosmin in protection against the oxidative stress induced damage by gamma-radiation in Wistar albino rats.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.: 2020;104622
[PubMed:32087353] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Alex Blacutt, Nichole Ginnan, Tyler Dang, Sohrab Bodaghi, Georgios Vidalakis, Paul Ruegger, Beth Peacock, Polrit Viravathana, Flavia Campos Vieira, Christopher Drozd, Barbara Jablonska, James Borneman, Greg McCollum, Jennifer Cordoza, Jeremiah Meloch, Victoria Berry, Lia Lozano Salazar, Katherine N Maloney, Philippe E Rolshausen, M Caroline Roper
##Title##
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.: 2020;
[PubMed:32086307] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Jixiang Chen, Chengqian Wei, Sikai Wu, Yuqin Luo, Rong Wu, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
Novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole thioether derivatives containing flexible-chain moiety: Design, synthesis, nematocidal activities, and pesticide-likeness analysis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.: 2020;127028
[PubMed:32085970] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Bindhya K Purushothaman, P Uma Maheswari, K M Meera Sheriffa Begum
##Title##
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.: 2020;
[PubMed:32084471] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Victor Fattori, Fernanda S Rasquel-Oliveira, Nayara A Artero, Camila R Ferraz, Sergio M Borghi, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
Diosmin Treats Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Pain and Peritonitis by Blocking NF-κB Activation in Mice.
J. Nat. Prod.: 2020;
[PubMed:32083866] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

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