Cinnamomum cassia

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Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Contents

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Guixin ¹ðÐÄ Ziyougui ×ÏÓ͹ð Chinese Name (pinyin): Rougui

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cinnamon Bark

Specific Name  : Cortex cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is frequently collected in autumn and dried in the shade.

Description  : Channeled or quilled, 30-40cm long, 3-10cm wide, 2-8mm thick, outer surface greyish brown, slightly rough with irregular fine wrinkles and transverse raised lenticels, some showing greyish white streaks, inner surface reddish-brown, somewhat even with fine longitudinal striations and exhibiting oily trace on scratching. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken, fracture uneven, outer layer brown and relatively rough, inner layer reddish brown and oily and showing yellowish brown line between two layers, Odour slightly aromatic, taste sweet and pungent.

Identification  : 1.Macerate the drug in hot water, extract shows a bright blue fluorescence under day light.2.Transverse section: Cork cells 5-10 rows, Phelloderm several rows of polygonal collenchyma cells. Cortex relatively wide, fibres and stone cells scattered singly or in groups. The annular band composed of stone cells and fibre bundles occuring in pericycle, occasionally intermittent. Phloem ray 1-3 cells wide, fiber bundles and some stone cells arranged lamellar, penetrated with rays in "#" shape. Parenchymatous cells containing sand crystal of calcium oxalate.3.Heat under reflux 1g of the powder with 10ml of ethanol for 10 minutes, cool, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve esculin CRS and esculetin CRS in ethanol to produced a solution containing 5mg of each per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and toluene-ethyl acettate formic-acid-ethanol (3:4:1:2) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 3µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and examine under ultra-violet light (365 nm). The fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Preparation of reference solution: weigh accurately 20mg of esculin CRS, dried to constant weight at 80ºC in a 10ml volumetric flask, add quantity of ethanol, shake to dissolve, heat gently if necessary. Allow to cool, dilute with ethanol to volume and mix well.Preparation of standard calibration: Carry out the method for chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and n-butanol chloroform-toluene-formic acid (8:1:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 30,50,70,90 and 110µl accuratle measure in strip to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under the ultra violet light (365nm), scrape the silica gel of the strips to stoppered conical flasks, and scrape the same area of silica gel to another flask as the blank at the same time. Add accurately 10ml of ethanol to each flask, heat gently at a 45ºC water bath for 30 minutes and coll. Filter, discard the initial filtrate and collect successive filtrate. Carry out the method for spectophotometry (appendix v A) measure the absorbance at 336nm and plot the standard curve using absorbance as ordinate and concentration as abscissa.Procedure: Weigh accurately 1g of the powder (pass through no.3 sieve) to a stoppered flask, add accurately 10ml of ethanol, weigh and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Allow to cool, weigh again and ethanol to make up for the loses of the weigh and mix well. Filter, discard the initial filtrate and collect the successive filtrate. Carry out the method for chromatogaphy (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and n-butanol-chloroform-toluene-formic acid (8:1:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply in the strips 50µl accurately measured to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under ultra violet light (365nm) scrape the silica gel of the strip correspond on the spot of the reference substance. Comply with the method describe under the preparation of standard calibration beginning at the word " to stoppered conical flask?", measure the absorbance, read out the concentration from the standard curve and calculate. It contains not less than 1.36% of esculin (C14H15O9).

Processing  : eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into slices and dry in the sun.

Action  : To supplement body fire, reinforce yang, and lead the fire back to the kidney, to dispel cold and relieve pain, and to activate blood circulation and stimulate menstural discharge.

Indication  : impotence, frigidity, feeling of coldness and pain in the loins and knees; dyspnea in deficiency syndrome of the kidney, dizziness inflammation of the eye and sore throat due to yang deficiency; precordial abdominal pain with cold sensation, vomiting, diarrhea in deficiency-cold syndromes; neurosis with a feeling of gas rushing up through the chest to the throat from the lower abdomen; amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea

Precautions  : Used with caution in patients with bleeding tendency or pregnancy. Icompatible with Halloysitum Rubrum.

Dosage  : 1 to 4.5 g.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Rouguiyou

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cassia Bark oil

Specific Name  : Oleum cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  :

Description  : Yellow or yellowish brown, clear liquid, odor characteristic and aromatic, resembling Cortex Cinnamomi, taste sweet and pungent. The color darkens gradually and becomes viscid on exposure to the air or on long storage. Freely soluble in ethanol or glacial acetic acid.Relative density: 1.055 - 1.070 (Appendix Vll A)Refractive index: 1.602 - 1.614 (Appendix Vll F)

Identification  : Cool to 0ºC, shake with an equal volume of nitric acid, a crystaline precipitate is producedHeavy metals: To 10ml of the oil add 10ml of water and 1 drop of hydrochloric acid, shake then saturate the solution with hydrogen sulfide gas, both the aqueous layer and oil layer show no color change.Assay: to 10ml (A), accurately measured in a 100 ml cassia flask add 50ml of a freshly prepared neutral saturated solution of sodium sulfite (add 30% solution of sodium bisulfite in dropwise to the saturated solution of sodium sulfite until neutral to phenolphthalein IS) and mix well. Add two drops of phenolphthalein IS and heat immediately in water bath in constant shaking. Add dropwise 30% solution of sodium bisulfite to discharge any red color produced on heating with shaking. Add several drops of phenolphthalein IS again and continue to heat on water bath for 15 minutes. Allow it to cool to room temperature when the red color is not produced, add dropwisely 30% solution of sodium bisulfite to discharge the red color produced on heating. Repeat the operation until the solution shows no red color, allow it to cool and stand until separation take place. Add a quantity of neutral saturated sodium sulfite solution until the oily layer rises to the graduated part of the neck of the flask. Allow it to stand for about 18 hours until it becomes clear. Read the volume of the oil layer separated as (B). (A - B) x 10 represent the percentage. It contains not less than 85.0% (ml/ml) of cinnamic aldehyde (C9 H8 O)

Processing  :

Action  : Carminative and stomachic.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.02 to 0.2 ml; 0.06 to 0.6ml, daily.

Storage  : Preserve in well filled and tightly closed containers, stored in a cool place and protected from light.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chuan Guizhi ´¨¹ðÖ¦ Nen Guizhi ÄÛ¹ðÖ¦ Chinese Name (pinyin): Guizhi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cinnamon twig

Specific Name  : Ramulus cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and summer, removed from leaf, dried in the sun or dried in the sun after sliced.

Description  : Long cylindrical, much branched, 30 - 75 cm long, the thick end 0.3 - 1 cm in diameter. Externally brown to reddish brown with longitudinal lines, fine wrinkles, dotted leaf scars, branch scars and bud scars, lenticels dotted or dotted elliptic. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken. Slice 2 - 4 mm thick, cut surface showing reddish brown in bark, yellowish white to pale yellowish brown in wood, pith subsquare. Odour characteristic aromatic, taste sweet and slightly pungent, relatively strong in bark.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Epidermis consisting of 1 layer of cells, non-glandular hairs unicellular visible in young branches. Cork consisting of 3 - 5 layers of cells. The inner cells with thickened outer walls. Oil cells and stone cells scattered in cortex. Stone cells groups in pericycle interruptedly arranged in a ring, accompanied by fibre bundles. Secretory cells and fibres scattered in phloem. Cambium distinct, xylem rays 1 - 2 cells wide, containing brown contents, vessels scattered singly or 2 to several aggregated, wood fibres with relatively thin walls and differentiated uneasily from wood parenchymatous cells. In pith the walls of cells slightly thickened and lignified. Cells of rays containing fine needle crystal of calcium oxalate.2.To 0.5g of the powder add 10 ml of ethanol, stopped tightly, macerate for 20 minutes with constant shaking and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve cinnamic aldehyde CRS in ethanol to produce a solution containing 1 µl per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and petroleum ether (boiling range 60 - 90ºC)-ethyl acetate (85:15) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 - 15 µl of the test solution and 2 µl of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and spray with 0.1% 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine solution. The orange red spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, soak briefly, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry in the air. Slices subrounded, elliptic or sections irregular, externally some with dotted lenticels and longitudinal lines bark reddish brown, wood yellowish white or pale yellowish brown, pith subrounded or slightly square.

Action  : To induce perspiration, to warm the channels and stimulate menstrual discharge, to reinforce yang, to relieve palpitation, and to promote the desending of qi.

Indication  : common cold; epigastric pain with cold feeling; amenorrhea due to cold in the blood; arthralgia; edema; cardiac palpitaion; gastro-intestinal neurosis with a feeling of gas rushing up through the chest to the throat from the lower abdomen

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Guixin ¹ðÐÄ Ziyougui ×ÏÓ͹ð Chinese Name (pinyin): Rougui

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cinnamon Bark

Specific Name  : Cortex cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is frequently collected in autumn and dried in the shade.

Description  : Channeled or quilled, 30-40cm long, 3-10cm wide, 2-8mm thick, outer surface greyish brown, slightly rough with irregular fine wrinkles and transverse raised lenticels, some showing greyish white streaks, inner surface reddish-brown, somewhat even with fine longitudinal striations and exhibiting oily trace on scratching. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken, fracture uneven, outer layer brown and relatively rough, inner layer reddish brown and oily and showing yellowish brown line between two layers, Odour slightly aromatic, taste sweet and pungent.

Identification  : 1.Macerate the drug in hot water, extract shows a bright blue fluorescence under day light.2.Transverse section: Cork cells 5-10 rows, Phelloderm several rows of polygonal collenchyma cells. Cortex relatively wide, fibres and stone cells scattered singly or in groups. The annular band composed of stone cells and fibre bundles occuring in pericycle, occasionally intermittent. Phloem ray 1-3 cells wide, fiber bundles and some stone cells arranged lamellar, penetrated with rays in "#" shape. Parenchymatous cells containing sand crystal of calcium oxalate.3.Heat under reflux 1g of the powder with 10ml of ethanol for 10 minutes, cool, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve esculin CRS and esculetin CRS in ethanol to produced a solution containing 5mg of each per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and toluene-ethyl acettate formic-acid-ethanol (3:4:1:2) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 3µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and examine under ultra-violet light (365 nm). The fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Preparation of reference solution: weigh accurately 20mg of esculin CRS, dried to constant weight at 80ºC in a 10ml volumetric flask, add quantity of ethanol, shake to dissolve, heat gently if necessary. Allow to cool, dilute with ethanol to volume and mix well.Preparation of standard calibration: Carry out the method for chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and n-butanol chloroform-toluene-formic acid (8:1:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 30,50,70,90 and 110µl accuratle measure in strip to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under the ultra violet light (365nm), scrape the silica gel of the strips to stoppered conical flasks, and scrape the same area of silica gel to another flask as the blank at the same time. Add accurately 10ml of ethanol to each flask, heat gently at a 45ºC water bath for 30 minutes and coll. Filter, discard the initial filtrate and collect successive filtrate. Carry out the method for spectophotometry (appendix v A) measure the absorbance at 336nm and plot the standard curve using absorbance as ordinate and concentration as abscissa.Procedure: Weigh accurately 1g of the powder (pass through no.3 sieve) to a stoppered flask, add accurately 10ml of ethanol, weigh and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Allow to cool, weigh again and ethanol to make up for the loses of the weigh and mix well. Filter, discard the initial filtrate and collect the successive filtrate. Carry out the method for chromatogaphy (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and n-butanol-chloroform-toluene-formic acid (8:1:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply in the strips 50µl accurately measured to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under ultra violet light (365nm) scrape the silica gel of the strip correspond on the spot of the reference substance. Comply with the method describe under the preparation of standard calibration beginning at the word " to stoppered conical flask?", measure the absorbance, read out the concentration from the standard curve and calculate. It contains not less than 1.36% of esculin (C14H15O9).

Processing  : eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into slices and dry in the sun.

Action  : To supplement body fire, reinforce yang, and lead the fire back to the kidney, to dispel cold and relieve pain, and to activate blood circulation and stimulate menstural discharge.

Indication  : impotence, frigidity, feeling of coldness and pain in the loins and knees; dyspnea in deficiency syndrome of the kidney, dizziness inflammation of the eye and sore throat due to yang deficiency; precordial abdominal pain with cold sensation, vomiting, diarrhea in deficiency-cold syndromes; neurosis with a feeling of gas rushing up through the chest to the throat from the lower abdomen; amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea

Precautions  : Used with caution in patients with bleeding tendency or pregnancy. Icompatible with Halloysitum Rubrum.

Dosage  : 1 to 4.5 g.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Rouguiyou

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cassia Bark oil

Specific Name  : Oleum cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  :

Description  : Yellow or yellowish brown, clear liquid, odor characteristic and aromatic, resembling Cortex Cinnamomi, taste sweet and pungent. The color darkens gradually and becomes viscid on exposure to the air or on long storage. Freely soluble in ethanol or glacial acetic acid.Relative density: 1.055 - 1.070 (Appendix Vll A)Refractive index: 1.602 - 1.614 (Appendix Vll F)

Identification  : Cool to 0ºC, shake with an equal volume of nitric acid, a crystaline precipitate is producedHeavy metals: To 10ml of the oil add 10ml of water and 1 drop of hydrochloric acid, shake then saturate the solution with hydrogen sulfide gas, both the aqueous layer and oil layer show no color change.Assay: to 10ml (A), accurately measured in a 100 ml cassia flask add 50ml of a freshly prepared neutral saturated solution of sodium sulfite (add 30% solution of sodium bisulfite in dropwise to the saturated solution of sodium sulfite until neutral to phenolphthalein IS) and mix well. Add two drops of phenolphthalein IS and heat immediately in water bath in constant shaking. Add dropwise 30% solution of sodium bisulfite to discharge any red color produced on heating with shaking. Add several drops of phenolphthalein IS again and continue to heat on water bath for 15 minutes. Allow it to cool to room temperature when the red color is not produced, add dropwisely 30% solution of sodium bisulfite to discharge the red color produced on heating. Repeat the operation until the solution shows no red color, allow it to cool and stand until separation take place. Add a quantity of neutral saturated sodium sulfite solution until the oily layer rises to the graduated part of the neck of the flask. Allow it to stand for about 18 hours until it becomes clear. Read the volume of the oil layer separated as (B). (A - B) x 10 represent the percentage. It contains not less than 85.0% (ml/ml) of cinnamic aldehyde (C9 H8 O)

Processing  :

Action  : Carminative and stomachic.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.02 to 0.2 ml; 0.06 to 0.6ml, daily.

Storage  : Preserve in well filled and tightly closed containers, stored in a cool place and protected from light.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chuan Guizhi ´¨¹ðÖ¦ Nen Guizhi ÄÛ¹ðÖ¦ Chinese Name (pinyin): Guizhi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cinnamon twig

Specific Name  : Ramulus cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and summer, removed from leaf, dried in the sun or dried in the sun after sliced.

Description  : Long cylindrical, much branched, 30 - 75 cm long, the thick end 0.3 - 1 cm in diameter. Externally brown to reddish brown with longitudinal lines, fine wrinkles, dotted leaf scars, branch scars and bud scars, lenticels dotted or dotted elliptic. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken. Slice 2 - 4 mm thick, cut surface showing reddish brown in bark, yellowish white to pale yellowish brown in wood, pith subsquare. Odour characteristic aromatic, taste sweet and slightly pungent, relatively strong in bark.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Epidermis consisting of 1 layer of cells, non-glandular hairs unicellular visible in young branches. Cork consisting of 3 - 5 layers of cells. The inner cells with thickened outer walls. Oil cells and stone cells scattered in cortex. Stone cells groups in pericycle interruptedly arranged in a ring, accompanied by fibre bundles. Secretory cells and fibres scattered in phloem. Cambium distinct, xylem rays 1 - 2 cells wide, containing brown contents, vessels scattered singly or 2 to several aggregated, wood fibres with relatively thin walls and differentiated uneasily from wood parenchymatous cells. In pith the walls of cells slightly thickened and lignified. Cells of rays containing fine needle crystal of calcium oxalate.2.To 0.5g of the powder add 10 ml of ethanol, stopped tightly, macerate for 20 minutes with constant shaking and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve cinnamic aldehyde CRS in ethanol to produce a solution containing 1 µl per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and petroleum ether (boiling range 60 - 90ºC)-ethyl acetate (85:15) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 - 15 µl of the test solution and 2 µl of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and spray with 0.1% 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine solution. The orange red spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, soak briefly, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry in the air. Slices subrounded, elliptic or sections irregular, externally some with dotted lenticels and longitudinal lines bark reddish brown, wood yellowish white or pale yellowish brown, pith subrounded or slightly square.

Action  : To induce perspiration, to warm the channels and stimulate menstrual discharge, to reinforce yang, to relieve palpitation, and to promote the desending of qi.

Indication  : common cold; epigastric pain with cold feeling; amenorrhea due to cold in the blood; arthralgia; edema; cardiac palpitaion; gastro-intestinal neurosis with a feeling of gas rushing up through the chest to the throat from the lower abdomen

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Guixin ¹ðÐÄ Ziyougui ×ÏÓ͹ð Chinese Name (pinyin): Rougui

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cinnamon Bark

Specific Name  : Cortex cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is frequently collected in autumn and dried in the shade.

Description  : Channeled or quilled, 30-40cm long, 3-10cm wide, 2-8mm thick, outer surface greyish brown, slightly rough with irregular fine wrinkles and transverse raised lenticels, some showing greyish white streaks, inner surface reddish-brown, somewhat even with fine longitudinal striations and exhibiting oily trace on scratching. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken, fracture uneven, outer layer brown and relatively rough, inner layer reddish brown and oily and showing yellowish brown line between two layers, Odour slightly aromatic, taste sweet and pungent.

Identification  : 1.Macerate the drug in hot water, extract shows a bright blue fluorescence under day light.2.Transverse section: Cork cells 5-10 rows, Phelloderm several rows of polygonal collenchyma cells. Cortex relatively wide, fibres and stone cells scattered singly or in groups. The annular band composed of stone cells and fibre bundles occuring in pericycle, occasionally intermittent. Phloem ray 1-3 cells wide, fiber bundles and some stone cells arranged lamellar, penetrated with rays in "#" shape. Parenchymatous cells containing sand crystal of calcium oxalate.3.Heat under reflux 1g of the powder with 10ml of ethanol for 10 minutes, cool, filter and use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve esculin CRS and esculetin CRS in ethanol to produced a solution containing 5mg of each per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and toluene-ethyl acettate formic-acid-ethanol (3:4:1:2) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 3µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and examine under ultra-violet light (365 nm). The fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Assay: Preparation of reference solution: weigh accurately 20mg of esculin CRS, dried to constant weight at 80ºC in a 10ml volumetric flask, add quantity of ethanol, shake to dissolve, heat gently if necessary. Allow to cool, dilute with ethanol to volume and mix well.Preparation of standard calibration: Carry out the method for chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and n-butanol chloroform-toluene-formic acid (8:1:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 30,50,70,90 and 110µl accuratle measure in strip to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under the ultra violet light (365nm), scrape the silica gel of the strips to stoppered conical flasks, and scrape the same area of silica gel to another flask as the blank at the same time. Add accurately 10ml of ethanol to each flask, heat gently at a 45ºC water bath for 30 minutes and coll. Filter, discard the initial filtrate and collect successive filtrate. Carry out the method for spectophotometry (appendix v A) measure the absorbance at 336nm and plot the standard curve using absorbance as ordinate and concentration as abscissa.Procedure: Weigh accurately 1g of the powder (pass through no.3 sieve) to a stoppered flask, add accurately 10ml of ethanol, weigh and heat under reflux for 30 minutes. Allow to cool, weigh again and ethanol to make up for the loses of the weigh and mix well. Filter, discard the initial filtrate and collect the successive filtrate. Carry out the method for chromatogaphy (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and n-butanol-chloroform-toluene-formic acid (8:1:1:1) as the mobile phase. Apply in the strips 50µl accurately measured to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under ultra violet light (365nm) scrape the silica gel of the strip correspond on the spot of the reference substance. Comply with the method describe under the preparation of standard calibration beginning at the word " to stoppered conical flask?", measure the absorbance, read out the concentration from the standard curve and calculate. It contains not less than 1.36% of esculin (C14H15O9).

Processing  : eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into slices and dry in the sun.

Action  : To supplement body fire, reinforce yang, and lead the fire back to the kidney, to dispel cold and relieve pain, and to activate blood circulation and stimulate menstural discharge.

Indication  : impotence, frigidity, feeling of coldness and pain in the loins and knees; dyspnea in deficiency syndrome of the kidney, dizziness inflammation of the eye and sore throat due to yang deficiency; precordial abdominal pain with cold sensation, vomiting, diarrhea in deficiency-cold syndromes; neurosis with a feeling of gas rushing up through the chest to the throat from the lower abdomen; amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea

Precautions  : Used with caution in patients with bleeding tendency or pregnancy. Icompatible with Halloysitum Rubrum.

Dosage  : 1 to 4.5 g.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Rouguiyou

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cassia Bark oil

Specific Name  : Oleum cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  :

Description  : Yellow or yellowish brown, clear liquid, odor characteristic and aromatic, resembling Cortex Cinnamomi, taste sweet and pungent. The color darkens gradually and becomes viscid on exposure to the air or on long storage. Freely soluble in ethanol or glacial acetic acid.Relative density: 1.055 - 1.070 (Appendix Vll A)Refractive index: 1.602 - 1.614 (Appendix Vll F)

Identification  : Cool to 0ºC, shake with an equal volume of nitric acid, a crystaline precipitate is producedHeavy metals: To 10ml of the oil add 10ml of water and 1 drop of hydrochloric acid, shake then saturate the solution with hydrogen sulfide gas, both the aqueous layer and oil layer show no color change.Assay: to 10ml (A), accurately measured in a 100 ml cassia flask add 50ml of a freshly prepared neutral saturated solution of sodium sulfite (add 30% solution of sodium bisulfite in dropwise to the saturated solution of sodium sulfite until neutral to phenolphthalein IS) and mix well. Add two drops of phenolphthalein IS and heat immediately in water bath in constant shaking. Add dropwise 30% solution of sodium bisulfite to discharge any red color produced on heating with shaking. Add several drops of phenolphthalein IS again and continue to heat on water bath for 15 minutes. Allow it to cool to room temperature when the red color is not produced, add dropwisely 30% solution of sodium bisulfite to discharge the red color produced on heating. Repeat the operation until the solution shows no red color, allow it to cool and stand until separation take place. Add a quantity of neutral saturated sodium sulfite solution until the oily layer rises to the graduated part of the neck of the flask. Allow it to stand for about 18 hours until it becomes clear. Read the volume of the oil layer separated as (B). (A - B) x 10 represent the percentage. It contains not less than 85.0% (ml/ml) of cinnamic aldehyde (C9 H8 O)

Processing  :

Action  : Carminative and stomachic.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.02 to 0.2 ml; 0.06 to 0.6ml, daily.

Storage  : Preserve in well filled and tightly closed containers, stored in a cool place and protected from light.

Tcm192.jpg
P173 1.jpg
Tcm363.jpg
Tcm p52 001c.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chuan Guizhi ´¨¹ðÖ¦ Nen Guizhi ÄÛ¹ðÖ¦ Chinese Name (pinyin): Guizhi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cinnamon twig

Specific Name  : Ramulus cinnamomi

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and summer, removed from leaf, dried in the sun or dried in the sun after sliced.

Description  : Long cylindrical, much branched, 30 - 75 cm long, the thick end 0.3 - 1 cm in diameter. Externally brown to reddish brown with longitudinal lines, fine wrinkles, dotted leaf scars, branch scars and bud scars, lenticels dotted or dotted elliptic. Texture hard and fragile, easily broken. Slice 2 - 4 mm thick, cut surface showing reddish brown in bark, yellowish white to pale yellowish brown in wood, pith subsquare. Odour characteristic aromatic, taste sweet and slightly pungent, relatively strong in bark.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Epidermis consisting of 1 layer of cells, non-glandular hairs unicellular visible in young branches. Cork consisting of 3 - 5 layers of cells. The inner cells with thickened outer walls. Oil cells and stone cells scattered in cortex. Stone cells groups in pericycle interruptedly arranged in a ring, accompanied by fibre bundles. Secretory cells and fibres scattered in phloem. Cambium distinct, xylem rays 1 - 2 cells wide, containing brown contents, vessels scattered singly or 2 to several aggregated, wood fibres with relatively thin walls and differentiated uneasily from wood parenchymatous cells. In pith the walls of cells slightly thickened and lignified. Cells of rays containing fine needle crystal of calcium oxalate.2.To 0.5g of the powder add 10 ml of ethanol, stopped tightly, macerate for 20 minutes with constant shaking and filter. Use the filtrate as the test solution. Dissolve cinnamic aldehyde CRS in ethanol to produce a solution containing 1 µl per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and petroleum ether (boiling range 60 - 90ºC)-ethyl acetate (85:15) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 - 15 µl of the test solution and 2 µl of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and spray with 0.1% 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine solution. The orange red spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, soak briefly, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry in the air. Slices subrounded, elliptic or sections irregular, externally some with dotted lenticels and longitudinal lines bark reddish brown, wood yellowish white or pale yellowish brown, pith subrounded or slightly square.

Action  : To induce perspiration, to warm the channels and stimulate menstrual discharge, to reinforce yang, to relieve palpitation, and to promote the desending of qi.

Indication  : common cold; epigastric pain with cold feeling; amenorrhea due to cold in the blood; arthralgia; edema; cardiac palpitaion; gastro-intestinal neurosis with a feeling of gas rushing up through the chest to the throat from the lower abdomen

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a cool and dry place.

Synonymns for Cinnamomum cassia

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Cinnamomum cassia

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Cinnamomum cassia in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Wen-Xiang Cheng, Shan Zhong, Xiang-Bo Meng, Nian-Ye Zheng, Peng Zhang, Yun Wang, Ling Qin, Xin-Luan Wang
Cinnamaldehyde inhibits inflammation of human synoviocyte cells through regulation of Jak/Stat pathway and ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in rats.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.: 2020;
[PubMed:32029577] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Chun Li, Xia Du, Yang Liu, Qi-Qi Liu, Wen Bing Zhi, Chun Liu Wang, Jie Zhou, Ye Li, Hong Zhang
A Systems Pharmacology Approach for Identifying the Multiple Mechanisms of Action for the Rougui-Fuzi Herb Pair in the Treatment of Cardiocerebral Vascular Diseases.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: 2020, 2020;5196302
[PubMed:32025235] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Huan Chen, Ting Pan, Panwang Liu, Ping Wang, Shijun Xu
Baihu Jia Guizhi Decoction Improves Rheumatoid Arthritis Inflammation by Regulating Succinate/SUCNR1 Metabolic Signaling Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: 2019, 2019;3258572
[PubMed:31949465] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Aditya Sindu Sakti, Fadlina Chany Saputri, Abdul Mun'im
##Title##
Heliyon: 2019, 5(12);e02915
[PubMed:31872114] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Dejanildo J Veloso, Fariza Abrão, Carlos H G Martins, Juliana D Bronzato, Brenda P F A Gomes, Jane S Higino, Fabio C Sampaio
Potential antibacterial and anti-halitosis activity of medicinal plants against oral bacteria.
Arch. Oral Biol.: 2020, 110;104585
[PubMed:31838294] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

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Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects