Bufo melanostictus

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Other Names:

Historical Use of Bufo melanostictus

Bufo melanostictus in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Chinese Name (pinyin): Chansu

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Toad Venom

Specific Name  : Venenum bufonis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : Usually the toad is collected in summer and autumn, wash clean. The white serous fluid of the parotid glands and skin glands is squeezed out, processed and dried.

Description  : In flattened and rounded massed or slices, brown or reddish brown. Texture of the mass hard uneasily broken, fracture brown, cuticuloid, slightly lustrous. Texture of the slice fragile, easily broken, fracture reddish brown, translucent. Odour slightly stinking, taste sweet at first, persistently tingling and pungent later. Sneeze on smelling the powder.

Identification  : 1.A creamy white bump is produced on the fracture on touching with water.2.Macerate 0.1g of the powder in 5 ml of methanol for 1 hour and filter. To the filtrate add a small quantity of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and several drops of sulfuric acid, a bluish violet color is produced3.Macerate 0.1g of the powder in 5 ml of chloroform for 1 hour, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in small quantity of acetis anhydride add sulfuric acid dropwise, a bluish violet color is produced which turns gradually to bluish green.4.Heat under reflux 0.2g of the powder with 10 ml of ethanol forr 1 hour, filter, transfer the filtrate to 10 ml volumetric flask and add ethanol to volume as the test solution. Prepare a solution of Venenum Bufonis reference drug in the same manner as the reference drug solution. Dissolve resibufogenin CRS and cinobufogin CRS in ethanol in separately to produce a solutions containing 1 mg per ml as the reference solutions. Carry out the thin layer chromatography (Appendix V1 B) using silica gel GF254 as the coating substance and cyclohexane-chloroform acetone (4:3:3) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 µl of each of the four solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray it in the air, spray with 10% solution sulfuric acid in ethanol, visualize with a current of hot air to spots clear. The spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution, one green and one red spot are shown in the chromatogram of the test solution, corresponding in position with the reference solution.Total ash: Not more than 5.0% (Appendix 1X K)Acid insoluble ash: Not more than 2.0 (Appendix 1X K)Assay: Weigh accurately 0.5 g of the fine powder, dried at 80ºC for two hours, add 5 g of sea sand, stir well, pack to Soxhlet's extracor and add a quantity of chloroform, heat under reflux for 4 hours, recover chloroform, dissolve the residue in a quantity of ethanol, filter. Transfer the filtrate to a 100 ml of volumetric flask, wash the container with several quantities of ethanol, combine the washings to volumetric flask, add ethanol to volume and mix well. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry (Appendix V A), measure the absorbance of the solution at 299 nm, calculate the content of C24H22O4, taking 154 as the value of A (1%, 1 cm). It contains net less than 15.0% of bufolides calculated as resibugenin (C24H22O4).

Processing  : Pulvis Veneni Bufonis: Break to pieces, macerate with white rice wine, frequently stir until become concentrated extract, dry and pulverize. To each 10 kg of Venenum Bufonis add 2o kg of white rice wine.

Action  : To counteract toxicity, to relieve pain and to restore consciousiness.

Indication  : carbuncles, boils, sore throat; vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and impaired consciousness in heatstroke; anesthesia for surgical operation

Precautions  : Used with caution in pregnancy.

Dosage  : 0.015 to 0.03 g; mostly used in making pills or powders; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Not Found

Synonymns for Bufo melanostictus

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Bufo melanostictus

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Bufo melanostictus in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Wen-Long Wei, Ya-Ling An, Yan-Zhi Zhang, Zhen-Wei Li, Yang Zhou, Min Lei, Jian-Qing Zhang, Hua Qu, Juan Da, Wan-Ying Wu, De-An Guo
Quantitative analysis of fourteen bufadienolides in Venenum Bufonis crude drug and its Chinese patent medicines by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
J Ethnopharmacol: 2019, 251;112490
[PubMed:31884035] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Yu Zhang, Norio Takagi, Bo Yuan, Yanyan Zhou, Nan Si, Hongjie Wang, Jian Yang, Xiaolu Wei, Haiyu Zhao, Baolin Bian
The protection of indolealkylamines from LPS-induced inflammation in zebrafish.
J Ethnopharmacol: 2019, 243;112122
[PubMed:31356965] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Wen-Long Wei, Jin-Jun Hou, Xia Wang, Yang Yu, Hao-Jv Li, Zhen-Wei Li, Zi-Jin Feng, Hua Qu, Wan-Ying Wu, De-An Guo
Venenum bufonis: An overview of its traditional use, natural product chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology.
J Ethnopharmacol: 2019, 237;215-235
[PubMed:30905791] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Yu Zhang, Bo Yuan, Norio Takagi, Hongjie Wang, Yanyan Zhou, Nan Si, Jian Yang, Xiaolu Wei, Haiyu Zhao, Baolin Bian
Comparative Analysis of Hydrophilic Ingredients in Toad Skin and Toad Venom Using the UHPLC-HR-MS/MS and UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS Methods Together with the Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation of Indolealkylamines.
Molecules: 2018, 24(1);
[PubMed:30591646] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Mattilang Kharkongor, Rupa Nylla K Hooroo, Sudip Dey
Effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos, on hatching, mortality and morphology of Duttaphrynus melanostictus embryos.
Chemosphere: 2018, 210;917-921
[PubMed:30208551] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects