Bos taurus domesticus

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Bos taurus domesticus

Bos taurus domesticus in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Xihuang Î÷»Æ Chinese Name (pinyin): Niuhuang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Cow bezoar

Specific Name  : Calculus Bovis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected, remove from sorounding thin membrane and dried in the shade.

Description  : Mostly ovoid, subspheroidal, trianmgular or cubic, varying in size, 0.6-3 (-4.5)cm in diameter, ocassionally tubular or in broken pieces, externally yellowish red to brownish-yellow, some with a layer of black lustrous thin membrane known as "Wujinyi (blackgold clothing)", some rough with wart-like protuberances some with crackes. Light texture fragile, easily peeled, fracture golden yellow with fine dense concentric circular lines, some with white core. Aromatic odor, taste bitter then sweet with cold feeling, easily broken or chewing but not sticky to the teeth.

Identification  : 1.Mix some amount of the drug with water and paint on nails. The color of the nails turns yellow, commonly known as"Guajia".2.Mount small quantity of the drug with chloral hydrate TS without heating and examine under microscope. Irregular masses consisting of a number of yellowish-brown or brownish-red small granule, the pigments dissolved rapidly on adding chloral hydrate TS and a bright yellow color is produced, turning to green after standing for a long time.3.To a small quantity of the powder add 1ml of chloroform, shake thoroughly the add 2 drops of each sulfuric acid nand 30% hydrogen peroxide solution, mix well and a green color is produced.4.0.1g of powder add 1ml of hydrochloric acid and 10ml of chloroform, shake thoroughly, a yellowish brown color is produced in the chloroform layer, transfer the chloroform into a separator, add 5ml of barium hydroxxide TS, shake, a yellow precipitate is produced. Discard the aqueos layer and the precipitate. To 1ml of chloroform solution add 1ml of acetic anhydride and 2 drops of sulfuric acid, shake and allow to stand, a green color is produced.5.To 10mg of the powder add 20ml of chloroform, ulrasonicate for 30 minutes, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness, dissolve the rsidue in 1ml of ethanol as the test solution. Dissolve cholic acid CRS and deoxycholic acid CRS in ethanol to produce a solution containing 2mg of each per ml, as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G as the coating substance and isooctane ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (15:7:5) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 2µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of plate, dry it in the air. Spray with 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol heat at 105ºC for about 5 minutes, examine under ultra iolet light (365nm). The two fluorescent spot due to cholic acid and deoxycholic acid in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Water: carry out the determination of water (Appendix lX H) method 1, not more than 9.0%.Assay: Cholic acid reference preparation: Dissolve 12.5mg of cholic acid, dried to constant weight at 105ºC and accurately weighed with 60% acetic acid in 25ml volumetric flask and dilute to volume, mix well (containing 0.5mg cholic acid per ml)Preparation of standard curve: Transfer separately 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0ml of the reference solution accurately measured, to stoppered test tubes and add 1ml of furfural (freshly distilled) solution (1?100), allow to stand for five minute on an ice bath. Add 13.0ml of sulfuric acid solution (To 50ml of sulfuric acid dissolve in 65ml of water, mix well), mix well, heat at 70ºC on a water bath for 10 minutes, move immedieately to an ice bath for 2 minutes. Perform blank in the same way. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry (Appendix V B). Measure the absorbance at 605nm and plot the standard curve with absorbance as ordinate and concentration as abscissa.Procedure: weigh accurately 0.1g of the drug, add quantity of 60% acetic acid, stir well, transfer to a 50ml volumetric flask, add 60% acetic acid solution to the residue again and stir well. Transfer to the flask, dilute with 60% acetic acid solution to volume, mix well and filter. Discard the initial filtrate, transfer accurately 1ml of successive filtrate separately to two test tubes, in one test tube add 1ml of furfural solution (freshly prepared), to other tube add 1ml of water as a blank. Measure the absorbance as describe under "Preparation of standard curve" beginning at the words " Stand on an ice bath for five minutes", read out the content of cholic acid (µg) in the test solution form he standard curve and calculate the percentage content of the cholic acid (C24H35O4). It contains less than 7.0% of cholic acid (C24H35O4) calculated on the dried basis.Bilirubin reference preparation: dissolve about 10mg of Bilirubin CRS accurately weighed with quantity of chloroform in an amber coloured 100 ml volumetric flask and dilute to volume, transfer accurately 5 ml to a 50ml amber coloured volumetric flask, add ethanol to olume, mix well (containing 0.01m of Biliburin per ml)Preparation of standard curve: transfer separately 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0ml of the reference solution, accurately measured to stoppered test tube and dilute with ethanol to 9ml, add separately 1mlof the dizaotied sulfanilic acid solution (solution A: to 0.1g of sulfanilic acid add 1.5ml hydrochloric acid, dilute with water to 100 ml; solution B: dissolve 0.5g of sodium nitrite with water t0 100ml. Keep in refrigerator. Mix 10ml of solution A, add 3.0ml solution B, mix well before using) mix well and allow to stand in a dark place for 1 hour. Perform the blank in the same reagents. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry (Appendix V B). Measure the absorbance at 533nm and plot the standard curve, using absorbance as ordinate and concentration as abscissa.Procedure: weigh accurately 10mg of the fine powder to a conical flask, add 60ml of a mixture solution fo chloroform and ethanol (7:3) and 1 drop of hydrochloric acid, mix well, heat under reflux on a water bath for 30 minutes, allow to cool. Transfer the extract to a 100ml amber coloured volumetric flask, wash the container with the above mixture solution. Combine the washings into the volumetric flask, dilute with the mixture to volume, mix well. Transfer accurately 10ml of superanant solution to a 50ml coloured volumetric flask, dilute with ethanol to volume and mix well. Transfer accurately 3ml of the solution to a stoppered test tube and measure the absorbance, as describe under "Preparation of standard curve" beginning at the words "add ethanol to 9ml". Read out the content of the Bilirubin (µg) in the test solution from the standard curve and calculate the percentage content of Biliburin (C31H25O6N4). It contains less than 35.0% of bilirubin (C31H25O6N4) calculated on the dried basis.

Processing  :

Action  : To restore consciousness by reducing fire and eliminating phlegm, to relieve convulsions, and to counteract toxicity.

Indication  : impairment of consciousness in febrile diseases and stroke; infantile convulsion, epilepsy, mania; sore throat, ulcers in the mouth; carbuncles and boils

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 0.15 to 0.35 g, mostly used in making pills or powder; for external use, appropriate quantity to be ground into powder and applied topically.

Storage  : Preserve in well closed containers, stored in a cool and dry place, protected from light, moisture and pressure.

Synonymns for Bos taurus domesticus

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Bos taurus domesticus

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Bos taurus domesticus in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Xiaoqian Huo, Liansheng Qiao, Yankun Chen, Xi Chen, Yusu He, Yanling Zhang
Discovery of Novel Multi-target Inhibitor of angiotensin type 1 receptor and neprilysin inhibitors from Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Sci Rep: 2019, 9(1);16205
[PubMed:31700033] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Christopher H Taylor, Stuart Young, Jonathan Fenn, Angela L Lamb, Ann E Lowe, Benoit Poulin, Andrew D C MacColl, Janette E Bradley
##Title##
Funct Ecol: 2019, 33(8);1425-1435
[PubMed:31588159] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Sarah Goertz, Alexandre B de Menezes, Richard J Birtles, Jonathan Fenn, Ann E Lowe, Andrew D C MacColl, Benoit Poulin, Stuart Young, Janette E Bradley, Christopher H Taylor
Geographical location influences the composition of the gut microbiota in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) at a fine spatial scale.
PLoS ONE: 2019, 14(9);e0222501
[PubMed:31557179] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Fawzi Mahomoodally, Anne Kathie Samoisy, Shanoo Suroowan
Ethnozoological practices in Rodrigues island of the Mascarene archipelago.
J Ethnopharmacol: 2019, 245;112163
[PubMed:31419503] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Mette Sif Hansen, Peter Mikael Helweg Heegaard, Christine Stabell Benn, Gregers Jungersen
The Effect of Inactivated Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Vaccine on the Response to a Heterologous Bacterial Challenge in Pigs.
Front Immunol: 2019, 10;1557
[PubMed:31333678] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects