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Bitters is a non-scientific common name that may refer to a number of plant species and varieties.


Other Names:

Historical Use of Bitters

Bitters in Traditional Chinese Medicine


Historical Use of Bitters in Western Medicine

Quote Paraph: "If the cause of epilepsy appeared to be debility, he (William Cullen) recommended the use of cold bathing, exercises, and astringent and tonic medicines such as bitters, Peruvian bark and among the metals, arsenic, iron, zinc, mercury and copper…"
Sec Auth: Eadie MJ and Bladin PF
Title: A Disease Once Sacred. John Libbey & Company Ltd, 2001
Page: 192
Source: A Disease Once Sacred, John Libbey & Company Ltd, 2001, M.J. Eadie and P.F. Bladin
Complete: Eadie MJ, Bladin PF. A disease once sacred: a history of the medical understanding of epilepsy. Eastleigh: John Libbey; 2001. p. 192.
Primary Source:


Synonymns for Bitters

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Bitters

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Bitters in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials


1st Five Results: pubmed search

Hiroshi Maruta
Herbal therapeutics that block the oncogenic kinase PAK1: a practical approach towards PAK1-dependent diseases and longevity.
Phytother Res: 2014, 28(5);656-72
[PubMed:23943274] [] [DOI] (I p)



Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects