Atropa belladonna

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Atropa belladonna

Atropa belladonna in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Dianqiecao

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Belladonna herb

Specific Name  : Herba belladonnae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected at flowering to fruiting stage, removed from thick stem and soil, cut into sections and dry.

Description  : Roots cylindrical, 5 - 15mm in diameter, externally pale greyish brown with longitudinal wrinkles, old roots lignous, rootless easily broken, fracture even, bark narrow, greyish white, wood broad, brownish yellow, cambium ring obvious. Pith white, stems flattened cylindrical, 3 - 6mm in diameter, externally yellowish green with fine longitudinal wrinkles and sparse fine dotted lenticels, hollowed young stems pubescent. Leaves often crumpled and broken when whole, ovate elliptical, yellowish green to dark brown. Calyx with five lobes, corolla campanulate. Fruit spherical, 5 - 8mm in diameter with long fruit stalk and numerous seeds. Odour slight and taste slightly bitter and pungent.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Pale green or pale brownish green. Sand crystal of calcium oxalate numerous, 3 - 10 µm in diameter, some sand crystal cells containing cluster of crystals, 15 - 28µm in diameter. Leaf epidermal cells with sinuous, anticlinal walls and striated cuticle, stomata, anisocytic. Glandular hairs with a unicellular head and a 2 - 4celled stalk or with a 5 - 6 celled head on a unicellular stalk. Starch granules abundant, subrounded, cucullate or polygonal, 8 - 26µm in diameter, hilum pointed or cleft like in shape with distinct striations in larger granules. Bordered pit and reticulated vessels, 24 - 40µm in diameter. Wood fibres, sinuous, stone cells of testa and pollen grains observed.2.To 4g of the powder add 15ml of ethanol, shake for 15 minutes and filter. Evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Add 2ml of sulfuric acid solution (1Õ100), filter after stiring. Make the filtrate alkaline with ammonia TS then extract with 2ml of chloroform, separate the chloroform solution and evaporate to dryness. The residue yields the reactions characteristic of tropane alkaloids (Appendix lV)3.To 2g of the powder add 2ml of concentrated ammonia solution, mix well then add 25ml of chloroform, shake well. Allow to stand over night and filter. Evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 0.5 ml of chloroform as the test solution. To atropine sulfate CRS and scopolamine hydrobromide CRS add methanol to prepare a solution containing 4mg each per ml. Use as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and ethyl acetate-methanol-concentrated ammonia TS (17:2:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10µl of each of the test solution and the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and spray with dilute potassium iodobimuthate TS. The spots due to atropine sulfate and scopolemine hydrobromide in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Foreign matter: Not more than 4 percent of leaves with abnormal color (yellow, brown or almost black) not more than 3 percent of stems with a diameter exceeding 1cm (Appendix lX A)Water: Carry out the method for the determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 1) not more than 13.0%.Assay: Place about 10g of moderately coarse powder accurately weighed in Soxhlet's extractor, add a quantity of a mixture of 10ml of ethanol, 8ml of concentrated ammonia solution and 20ml of ether and allow to stand for 12 hours. Heat under reflux with 70 ml of ether for 3 hours until complete extraction of the alkaloids is effected. Evaporate the extract ot remove most of ether on a water bath, transfer to a separator and extract the solution with portions of each of 10ml of sulfuric acid solution (0.5mol/L) until complete extraction of the alkaloids is effected. Combine the acid solution, extract the solution with portions of each 10ml of chloroform until the chloroform layer is colorless. Combine the chloroform solutions and extract with 10ml of sulfuric acid solution (0.5 mol/L). Discard chloroform, combine the above acid solutions. Filter and wash the filter with sulfuric acid solution (0.5mol/L), combine washings and filtrate, make the solution alkaline by adding excess of concentrated ammonia TS and extract rapidly with several quantities fo chloroform until complete extraction of alkaloids is effected. If emulsion is produced, several drops of ethanol may be added. Wash the chloroform solutions consequently with the same portion of 10ml water and discard the washings. Combine the chloroform solutions, evaporate to dryness on a water bath. Add 3ml of ethanol and evaporate to dryness and dry at 80ºC for 2 hours. Add 2ml of chloroform to the residue and dissolve the residue by gentle heat if necessary. Add accurately 20ml of sulfuric acid (0.01mol/L) VS, heat on a water bath to remove chloroform, allow to cool to room temperature, add 1 - 2 drops of methyl red IS and titrate with sodium hydroxide (0.02mol/L). each ml of sulfuric acid (0.01mol/L) VS is equivalent to 5.788mg of C17 H23 NO3. It contains not less than 0.30% of total alkaloids, calculated as hyoscyamine (C17 H23 NO3) on the dried basis.

Processing  :

Action  : Anticholinergics.

Indication  :

Precautions  :

Dosage  : Preserve in a dry place.

Storage  :

Synonymns for Atropa belladonna

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Atropa belladonna

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Atropa belladonna in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Tengfei Zhao, Siqi Li, Jing Wang, Qi Zhou, Chunxian Yang, Feng Bai, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
##Title##
ACS Synth Biol: 2020;
[PubMed:31935324] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Fei Qiu, Junlan Zeng, Jing Wang, Jian-Ping Huang, Wei Zhou, Chunxian Yang, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Sheng-Xiong Huang, Guoyin Kai, Zhihua Liao
Functional genomics analysis reveals two novel genes required for littorine biosynthesis.
New Phytol.: 2020, 225(5);1906-1914
[PubMed:31705812] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Bihter Avsar, Yuhai Zhao, Wenhong Li, Walter J Lukiw
Atropa belladonna Expresses a microRNA (aba-miRNA-9497) Highly Homologous to Homo sapiens miRNA-378 (hsa-miRNA-378); both miRNAs target the 3'-Untranslated Region (3'-UTR) of the mRNA Encoding the Neurologically Relevant, Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor ZNF-691.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.: 2020, 40(1);179-188
[PubMed:31456135] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Paulina Bekiesch, Martina Oberhofer, Christina Sykora, Ernst Urban, Sergey B Zotchev
##Title##
Nat. Prod. Res.: 2019;1-7
[PubMed:31303055] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Emily E Wrenbeck, Matthew A Bedewitz, Justin R Klesmith, Syeda Noshin, Cornelius S Barry, Timothy A Whitehead
An Automated Data-Driven Pipeline for Improving Heterologous Enzyme Expression.
ACS Synth Biol: 2019, 8(3);474-481
[PubMed:30721031] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects