Astragalus membranaceus

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P399 1.jpg
P398 2.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Astragalus membranaceus

Astragalus membranaceus in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Shenghuangqi Éú»ÆÜÎ Zhihuangqi ÖË»ÆÜÎ Chinese Name (pinyin): Huangqi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Astragalus Root

Specific Name  : Radix astragali

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, removed from rootlet and root stock.

Description  : Cylindrical, some branched, upper part relatively thick, 30 - 90 cm long, 1 - 3.5 cm in diameter. Externally pale brownish yellow or pale brown with irregular, longitudinal wrinkles or furrows. Texture hard and tenacious, uneasily broken, fracture highly fibrous and starchy, bark yellowish white, wood pale yellow with radiate striations and fissures, the center part of old root ocassionally rotten wood shaped, blackish brown or hollowed. Odour weak, taste slightly sweet and slightly bean like on chewing.

Identification  : 1.Transfer section: Cork consisting of many rows of cells. Phelloderm of 3 - 5 rows of collenchymatous cells. Outer part of phloem rays often curved and fissured, fibres in bundles, walls thickened and lignified or slightly lignified, arranged alternately with sieve tube groups, stone cells sometimes visible near phelloderm. Cambium in a ring, xylem vessels scattered singly or 2 - 3 aggregated in groups, wood fibres existing among vessels. Stone cells singly or 2 - 4 in groups, sometimes visible in rays, parenchymatous cells containing starch granules.Powder: Yellowish white, fibers in bundles or scattered, 8 - 30µm in diameter, thick walled with longitudinal fissures on the surface, the primary walls often separated from the secondary walls, both ends often broken to tassel like or slightly truncated. Bordered pitted vessels, colorless or orange, bordered pits arranged closely. Stone cells occasionally visible, rounded, oblong or irregular, slightly thick walled.2.To 3 g of the powder add 20 ml of methanol and heat under reflux on a water bath for 1 hour and filter. Apply the filtrate to a prepared neutral aluminum oxide, column (100 - 120 mesh, 5g, 10 - 15 mm in internal diameter) and elute with 100 ml of 40% methanol. Collect the eluate. Evaporate the eluate on a water bath to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 30 ml of water and extract with 2 quantities of 20 ml n-butanol sturated with water. Combine the n-butanol solutions and wash with 2 quantities of 20 ml of water. Discard the water solution and evaporate the n-butanol solution to dryness on a water bath. Dissolve the residue in 0.5 ml of methanol as the test solution. Dissolve Astragaloside IV CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 1 mg per ml as the reference solution. Cary out the method for tjin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and chloroform-methanol-water (65:35:10, lower layer) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 2 µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 10% sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat at 105ºC for 5 minutes. A brown spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Examine under ultra violet light (365 nm), the same orange yellow fluorescent spots are shown in both chromatogram.Total ash: Not more than 5.0% (Appendix lX K)Acid-insoluble ash: Not more than 1.0% (Appendix lX K)Assay: Take 1.5g of the pulverized sample, weighed accuratel y to a Soxhlet's extraction, add 40 ml of methanol, soak overnight, add further a quantity of methanol, heat under reflux on a water bath for 4 hours, remove the methanol from the extract and concentrate to dryness, dissolve the residue in 10 ml of warm water, extract with 3 quantities, each of 20 ml, of butanol saturated with water. Combine the butanolic extracts, extract with ammonia solution twice (20, 20 ml), discard the ammonia solution. Evaporate the butanolic solution to dryness, dissolve the residue in 3 - 5 ml of water, cool down, elute with b50 ml of water through a column packed with D101 coarse bore resin (1.5 cm inner diameter, 12 cm length), discard the water eluate, eluate successively with 30 ml of 40% ethanol and 70% ethanolic eluate and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in methanol and transfer to a 2 ml of volumetric flask, add methanol to volume, shake well, use as the test solution. Dissolve Astrgaloside IV CRS, weighed accurately in methanol to produce a solution containing 1 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layerchromatography (Appendix lV B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and chlorofrom-methanol-water (13:6:2), (keep under 10ºC overnight before use) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2 µl, 6 µl of the test solution and 2µl, 4 µl of the reference solution alternately to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Spray with 10% of sulfuric acid, heat at 100ºC for about 5 - 7 minutes until the colour of the spot distinctive. Cover the plate with a piece of glass of the same size and fix the edge with tape. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (thin layer chromatographic scanning method) (Appendix Vl B), scan at wavelength of ÛS=530nm and ÛR= 700nm, measure the integrated value of the absorbance, calculate the content. It contains not less than 0.04% of astrgaloside IV (C41H6504) on the dried basis.Extractive : Carry out the cold extraction method as described under the determination of water-soluble extractives (appendix X A), not less than 17.0%.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, grade according to sizes, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry.Processed with honey: Stir fry the slices as described under the method of stir frying with honey (Appendix ll D) until no more sticky on the fingers.

Action  : To reinforce qi and strengthen the superificial resistance, and to promote the discharge of pus and the growth of new tissue. Radix Astragali (processed with honey): To reinforce qi and invigorate the function of spleen.

Indication  : deficiency of qi with lack of strength, anorexia and stools, sinking of the spleen manifested by chronic diarrhea, prolapse of the rectum, hematochezia and abnormal uterine bleeding; spontaneous sweating due to weakened superficial resistance; edema due to deficiency of qi; abscess difficult to burst or heal; anemia; diabetes caused by internal heat; albuminuria in chronic nephritis; diabetes mellitus processed with honey: deficiency of qi with lack of strength, anorexia, loose stools

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 9 to 30 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated dry place, protected from moisture and moth.

P399 1.jpg
P398 2.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Astragalus membranaceus

Astragalus membranaceus in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Shenghuangqi Éú»ÆÜÎ Zhihuangqi ÖË»ÆÜÎ Chinese Name (pinyin): Huangqi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Astragalus Root

Specific Name  : Radix astragali

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, removed from rootlet and root stock.

Description  : Cylindrical, some branched, upper part relatively thick, 30 - 90 cm long, 1 - 3.5 cm in diameter. Externally pale brownish yellow or pale brown with irregular, longitudinal wrinkles or furrows. Texture hard and tenacious, uneasily broken, fracture highly fibrous and starchy, bark yellowish white, wood pale yellow with radiate striations and fissures, the center part of old root ocassionally rotten wood shaped, blackish brown or hollowed. Odour weak, taste slightly sweet and slightly bean like on chewing.

Identification  : 1.Transfer section: Cork consisting of many rows of cells. Phelloderm of 3 - 5 rows of collenchymatous cells. Outer part of phloem rays often curved and fissured, fibres in bundles, walls thickened and lignified or slightly lignified, arranged alternately with sieve tube groups, stone cells sometimes visible near phelloderm. Cambium in a ring, xylem vessels scattered singly or 2 - 3 aggregated in groups, wood fibres existing among vessels. Stone cells singly or 2 - 4 in groups, sometimes visible in rays, parenchymatous cells containing starch granules.Powder: Yellowish white, fibers in bundles or scattered, 8 - 30µm in diameter, thick walled with longitudinal fissures on the surface, the primary walls often separated from the secondary walls, both ends often broken to tassel like or slightly truncated. Bordered pitted vessels, colorless or orange, bordered pits arranged closely. Stone cells occasionally visible, rounded, oblong or irregular, slightly thick walled.2.To 3 g of the powder add 20 ml of methanol and heat under reflux on a water bath for 1 hour and filter. Apply the filtrate to a prepared neutral aluminum oxide, column (100 - 120 mesh, 5g, 10 - 15 mm in internal diameter) and elute with 100 ml of 40% methanol. Collect the eluate. Evaporate the eluate on a water bath to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 30 ml of water and extract with 2 quantities of 20 ml n-butanol sturated with water. Combine the n-butanol solutions and wash with 2 quantities of 20 ml of water. Discard the water solution and evaporate the n-butanol solution to dryness on a water bath. Dissolve the residue in 0.5 ml of methanol as the test solution. Dissolve Astragaloside IV CRS in methanol to produce a solution containing 1 mg per ml as the reference solution. Cary out the method for tjin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and chloroform-methanol-water (65:35:10, lower layer) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 2 µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with 10% sulfuric acid in ethanol and heat at 105ºC for 5 minutes. A brown spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Examine under ultra violet light (365 nm), the same orange yellow fluorescent spots are shown in both chromatogram.Total ash: Not more than 5.0% (Appendix lX K)Acid-insoluble ash: Not more than 1.0% (Appendix lX K)Assay: Take 1.5g of the pulverized sample, weighed accuratel y to a Soxhlet's extraction, add 40 ml of methanol, soak overnight, add further a quantity of methanol, heat under reflux on a water bath for 4 hours, remove the methanol from the extract and concentrate to dryness, dissolve the residue in 10 ml of warm water, extract with 3 quantities, each of 20 ml, of butanol saturated with water. Combine the butanolic extracts, extract with ammonia solution twice (20, 20 ml), discard the ammonia solution. Evaporate the butanolic solution to dryness, dissolve the residue in 3 - 5 ml of water, cool down, elute with b50 ml of water through a column packed with D101 coarse bore resin (1.5 cm inner diameter, 12 cm length), discard the water eluate, eluate successively with 30 ml of 40% ethanol and 70% ethanolic eluate and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in methanol and transfer to a 2 ml of volumetric flask, add methanol to volume, shake well, use as the test solution. Dissolve Astrgaloside IV CRS, weighed accurately in methanol to produce a solution containing 1 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layerchromatography (Appendix lV B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and chlorofrom-methanol-water (13:6:2), (keep under 10ºC overnight before use) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 2 µl, 6 µl of the test solution and 2µl, 4 µl of the reference solution alternately to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air. Spray with 10% of sulfuric acid, heat at 100ºC for about 5 - 7 minutes until the colour of the spot distinctive. Cover the plate with a piece of glass of the same size and fix the edge with tape. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (thin layer chromatographic scanning method) (Appendix Vl B), scan at wavelength of ÛS=530nm and ÛR= 700nm, measure the integrated value of the absorbance, calculate the content. It contains not less than 0.04% of astrgaloside IV (C41H6504) on the dried basis.Extractive : Carry out the cold extraction method as described under the determination of water-soluble extractives (appendix X A), not less than 17.0%.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, grade according to sizes, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry.Processed with honey: Stir fry the slices as described under the method of stir frying with honey (Appendix ll D) until no more sticky on the fingers.

Action  : To reinforce qi and strengthen the superificial resistance, and to promote the discharge of pus and the growth of new tissue. Radix Astragali (processed with honey): To reinforce qi and invigorate the function of spleen.

Indication  : deficiency of qi with lack of strength, anorexia and stools, sinking of the spleen manifested by chronic diarrhea, prolapse of the rectum, hematochezia and abnormal uterine bleeding; spontaneous sweating due to weakened superficial resistance; edema due to deficiency of qi; abscess difficult to burst or heal; anemia; diabetes caused by internal heat; albuminuria in chronic nephritis; diabetes mellitus processed with honey: deficiency of qi with lack of strength, anorexia, loose stools

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 9 to 30 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated dry place, protected from moisture and moth.

Synonymns for Astragalus membranaceus

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Astragalus membranaceus

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Astragalus membranaceus in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Hsi-Lung Hsieh, Shih-Hai Liu, Ya-Ling Chen, Chien-Yi Huang, Shu-Ju Wu
Astragaloside IV suppresses inflammatory response via suppression of NF-κB, and MAPK signalling in human bronchial epithelial cells.
Arch. Physiol. Biochem.: 2020;1-10
[PubMed:32057253] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Shengjun Wu
Dietary Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide ameliorates the growth performance and innate immunity of juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus).
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.: 2020, 149;877-881
[PubMed:32027906] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Diao Hui, Tan Rui-Zhi, Li Jian-Chun, Zhong Xia, Wen Dan, Fan Jun-Ming, Wang Li
Astragalus propinquus Schischkin and Panax notoginseng (A&P) compound relieved cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury through inhibiting the mincle maintained macrophage inflammation.
J Ethnopharmacol: 2020, 252;112637
[PubMed:32004631] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Sunny O Abarikwu, Chigozie Linda Onuah, Shio Kumar Singh
Plants in the management of male infertility.
Andrologia: 2020;e13509
[PubMed:31989693] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Chong Peng, Zun-Ming Zhou, Jing Li, Yan Luo, Yun-Song Zhou, Xue-Hong Ke, Ke-Er Huang
##Title##
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: 2019, 2019;5941263
[PubMed:31976000] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

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Adverse Effects