Areca catechu

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Areca catechu

Areca catechu in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Dafupi

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Areca peel

Specific Name  : Pericarpium arecae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The unripe fruit is collected in winter to next spring, dried after boiled, cut longitudinally into two valves. The pericarp is peeled and known as "Dafupi". The ripe fruit is collected from late spring to early autumn, dried after boiled. The pericarp is peeled, tapped to loosen, dried in the sun and known as "Dafumao".

Description  : Dafupi Somewhat elliptical or long ovate, gourd shape, 4 - 7cm long, 2 - 3.5cm wide. 0.2 - 0.5 thick. Epicarp deep brown to blackish with irregular longitudinal wrinkles and raised transverse lines on the surface; style scars at the apex and a fruit stalk and remains of calyx at the base. Endocarp dented, brown or deep brown, smooth and hard shell shaped. Texture light and hard. Mesocarp fibres visible after torn longitudinally. Odour slightly astringent.Epicarp mostly lost or remained. Mesocarp fibres yellowish white or pale brown. Texture lax and soft. Endocarp hard shell shaped, yellowish brown or brown, inner surface smooth sometimes broken in longitudinal. Odourless and taste weak.

Identification  : Powder yellowish white or yellowish brown. Mesocarp fibres in bundles, fine and long, 8 - 15µl in diameter, slightly lignified, pits visible, surrounding cells of fibres bundle containing silica body, cluster shaped about 8µm in diameter. Enducarp cells irregular polygonal, subrouynded or illiptical, 48 - 88µm in diameter and pits visible.Water: Carry out the determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 1) not more than 12.0%.

Processing  : Dafupi Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean, cut into sections and dry.Dafumao: Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean and dry.

Action  : To promote the descending of qi, to relieve abdominal distension, and to cause diuresis.

Indication  : stagnation of qi due to accumulation of damp with epigastric and abdominal distension, difficult evacuation of feces, leg edemas, oliguria

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 4.5 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place.

Tcm76.jpg
Tcm143.jpg
P468 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Areca catechu

Areca catechu in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Binglangpian éÄÀÆƬ Huabinglang »¨éÄÀÆ Chinese Name (pinyin): Binglang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Areca Seed

Specific Name  : Semen arecae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The ripe fruit is collected from late spring to early autumn, boiled in water, dried, remove from pericarp and the seed is collected and dried.

Description  : Oblate or conical, 1.5 - 3.5 cm high, base 1.5 - 3 cm in diameter. Externally pale yellowish brown or pale reddish brown with slightly dented reticulate furrow and a rounded concave micropyle in the center of the base by side with an obvious scar shape hilum. Texture hard, uneasily broken, fracture showinmg marble like striations alternated with brown testa and white endosperm. Odor slight, taste astringent and slightly bitter.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Outer layers of testa consisting of several rows of flattened stone cells, elongated, tangentially, containing reddish brown contents. Stone cells varying in shape and size, often having intercellular space, inner layers of testa consisting of several layers of parenchymatous cells containing reddish brown contents and a few vascular bundles scatterred. Perisperm relatively narrow, inner layers of testa with perisperm often inserting into endosperm forming crisscross tissue. Endosperm cells white, polygonal walls thickened and large pits.2.To 8g of the powder, add 4ml of concentrated ammonia TS and 50 ml of chloroform, ultrasonicate for 10 minutes and filter. Wash the residue with 10 ml of chloroform and combine with chloroform solutions. Transfer to a separator, add 5ml of dilute hydrochloric acid TS and 20 ml of water and shake. Separate the water laayer. Wash with 10 ml of chloroform, discard the washings, add concentrated ammonia TS to pH 9 and extract with 2 quantities each of 10 ml of chloroform. Combine the chloroform solutions and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of methanol, use as the test solution. Prepare a solution of Semen Arecae reference drug in the same manner as the reference drug solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and cylohexane-ethyl acetate-concentrated ammonia TS (7.5: 7.5: 0.2) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 5µl of each of the two solutions. After developing in a chamber pre-equilibrated with ammonia vapor and removal of the plate, dry it in hot air and spray with dilute potassium iodobismuthate TS. The orange red spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colorr to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.Water: Carry out the method for the determination of water (Appendix lX H, method 1), not more than 10.0%.Assay: Place about 8g, weigh accurately of the coarse powder in a conical flask with a stopper, add 80ml of ether and shake. Add 4 ml of ammonia TS, shake for 10 minutes, add 10 g of the anhydrous sodium sulfate, shake again for 5 minutes, allow to stand. Transfer the ether solution to a separator, wash the residue with 3 quantities, each of 10 ml of ether. Combine the ether solutions, add 0.5g of talc powder, shake for 3 minutes. Add 2.5 ml of water, shake for 3 minutes. Allow to stand until the supernatant ether solution is clear. Separate the ether solution. Wash the water layer with a small quantity of ether, combine the ether solutions evaporate to about 20 ml at a lower temperature. Transfer the ether solution to a separator, add accurately 20 ml of sulfuric acid (0.01 mol/L) VS, shake and allow to stand. Separate the ether layer, wash with 3 quantities of 5ml of water. Combine the washings and the acid solution, filter, wash the filter with water. Combine the washings and the acid solution, add several drops of methyl red IS. Titrate with sodium hydroxide (0.02 mol/L)VS. Each ml of sulfuric acid (0.01 mol/L) VS is equivalent to 3.104mg of C8 H13 NO2. It contains not less than 0.30% of ether-soluble alkaloids, calculated as arecoline of (C8 H13 NO2) on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, soak soften thoroughly, cut into thin slices and dry in the shade.Semen Arecae (stir fry): Stir fry the slices as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until a slight yellow color is produce.

Action  : To kill worms, to remove undigested food, to promote the flow of qi, and to stop malarial attacks.

Indication  : taeniasis, ascariasis, fasciolopiasis; abdominal pain due to intenstinal parasitosis; diarrhea and tenesmus due to accumulation of undigested food; edema and weakness of the legs; malaria

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g; for the treatment of taeniasis nd fasciolopsiasis, 30 to 60 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated and dry place, protected from moth.

Tcm76.jpg
Tcm143.jpg
P468 1.jpg

Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Areca catechu

Areca catechu in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Jiaobinglang

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Areca seed (charred)

Specific Name  : Semen arecae perparata

Scientific Name:
Collection  :

Description  : Subrounded slices, 1.5 - 3cm in diameter. 1 - 2 mm thick, externally charred yellow, marmoration visible. Texture fragile, easily broken, odor slight and taste astringent and slightly bitter.

Identification  : 1.Powder: Charred yellow. Endosperm cells extremely numerous, mostly broken, colorless when whole, irregular polygonal or sub-square. Intercellular layer somewhat indistinct, 56 - 112 µm in diameter, walls 6 - 11 µm thick, pits relatively numerous, extremely great, sub-rounded or rectangle-rounded, 8 - 19 µm in diameter. Perisperm cells subsquare, sub-polygonal or strip shape 40 - 72 µm in diameter, walls about 8 µm thick. Pit canal visible, most lumina filled with reddish brown to dadrk brown substance. Stone cells of testa spindle shape, polygonal, 24 - 64 µm in diameter, walls 5 - 12 µm thick, pale yellowish brown, few pits, some lumina filled with reddish brown substance. Spiral or reticulate vessel occasionally visible, 8 - 16 µm in diameter.2.Complies with the Identification test (2) describe under Semen Arecae.

Processing  : Stir fry the slices as describe under the method for simple stir frying (Appendix ll D) until charred yellow color is produced.

Action  : To promote digestion and to relax bowels.

Indication  : indigestion; diarrhea with tenesmus

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated and dry place, protected from moth.

Synonymns for Areca catechu

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Areca catechu

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Areca catechu in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Albert Min-Shan Ko, Chien-Hung Lee, Allen Min-Jen Ko, Ying-Chin Ko
Betel quid dependence mechanism and potential cessation therapy.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry: 2020;109982
[PubMed:32454163] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Roger L Papke, Darlene H Brunzell, Mariella De Biasi
Cholinergic Receptors and Addiction.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci: 2020;
[PubMed:32451953] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P a)

Min-Hsuan Chiang, Kun-Tsung Denzel Lee, Chia-Hsin Chen, Ker-Kong Chen, Yan-Hsiung Wang
Photobiomodulation therapy inhibits oral submucous fibrosis in mice.
Oral Dis: 2020;
[PubMed:32391600] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Jagdish Kaur, Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo
Public health perspectives of smokeless tobacco and areca nut use in the COVID-19 era.
Nicotine Tob. Res.: 2020;
[PubMed:32382754] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Chung-Chieh Hung, Chien-Hung Lee, Albert Min-Shan Ko, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chi-Pin Lee, Ying-Chin Ko
Effect of antidepressants for cessation therapy in betel-quid use disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci: 2020, 29;e125
[PubMed:32370818] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects