Anemarrhena asphodeloides

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Anemarrhena asphodeloides

Anemarrhena asphodeloides in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Yanzhimu ÑÎ֪ĸ Chinese Name (pinyin): Zhimu

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Anemarrhena Rhizome

Specific Name  : Rhizoma anemarrhenae

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in spring and autumn, removed from fibrous root and soil, dried in the sun.

Description  : Slat shaped, slightly curved, somewhat compressed, branched occasionally, 3 - 15 cm long, 0.8 - 1.5 cm in diameter. One end exhibiting pale yellowish stem and leaf scars. Externally yellowish brown to brown. The upper surface exhibiting a concave groove and closely arranged annular nodes with dense yellowish brown remains of leaf bases growing upward bilaterally, the lower surface raised and somewhat shrivelled, exhibiting depressions or protruding dotted root scars. Texture hard, easily broken, fracture yellowish white, odour slight, taste slightly sweetish, bitterish and viscous on chewing.

Identification  : 1.Shake 2 g of the powder with 10 ml of ethanol, shake on a stand for 20 minutes. Evaporate 1 ml of the supernatant to dryness, to the residue add 1 drop of sulfuric acid, a yellow colour is produced which turns gradually red, violet and brown.2.Heat under reflux 2 g of the powder with 20 ml of ethanol for 40 minutes. To 10 ml of the supernatant add 1 ml of hydrochloric acid, heat under reflux for 1 hour and concentrate to about 5 ml. Add 10 ml of water, extract with 20 ml of benzene and evaporate the benzene extract to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 2 ml of benzene as the test solution. Dissolve sarsasapogenin CRS in benzene to produced a solution containing 5 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G as the coating substance and benzene acetone (9:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 7 µl of each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and spray with a mixture of 8% solution of vanillin in dehydrated ethanol and sulfuric acid solution (1Õ10) (0.5 :5) then heat at 100ºC for 5 minutes. The spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and colour to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Total ash: Not more than 8.5% (Appendix lX K)Assay: To about 1 g of the pulverized sample (pass through No. 3 sieve) and accurately weighed, add accurately 25 ml of ethanol to volumetric flask and weigh, allow to soak overnight and ultrasonicate for 40 minutes, allow to stand, weigh supplement the loss of weight with ethanol. Filter, discard the initial filtrate, measure accurately 10 ml of the successive filtrate, add 1 ml of hydrochloric acid. Heat slowly under reflux on a boiling water bath for 1 hour and cool. To the filtrate in a beaker, add dropwise 40 % solution of sodium hydroxide with shaking to neutralize ( the color of the solution changes from orange-yellow to orange red). Wash the container with ethanol, combine the washings into the beaker. Transfer the solution to50 ml of volumetric flask. Diluter with ethanol to volume, shake well, filter and discard the initial filtrate. Measure accurately 10 ml of the successive filtrate, evaporate to dryness in a dish. Dissolve the residue in a 2 ml of volumetric flask and dilute with benzene to the volume, use as the test solution. Dissolve sarsasapogenin CRS, weigh accurately in benzene to produce a solution containing 0.5 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B) using silica gel G containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the coating substance and benzene-acetone (9:1) as the mobile phase. Apply 4 µl, 6µl of the reference solution alternately to the plate. After developing to about 7 cm and removal of the plate, dry it in the air and go on the second development with the same mobile phase. Spray with a mixture of 1(to 25ml of water add dropwise slowly 50 ml of sulfuric acid) and 2 (8% solution of vanillin in dehydrated ethanol), keep in refrigerator before use. Heat at 70ºC for 7 - 10 minutes until the color of the spot distinctive. Cover the plate with a piece of glass of the same size, fix the edge with tape. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (thin layer chromatographic scanning method) (Appendix Vl B), scan at wavelength of Ûs=443nm, measure the integration value of absorbance, calculate the content. It contains not less than 1% of sarsasapogenin (C27H45O3), calculated on the dried basis.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices dry and removed hairs and scraps.Processed with salt: Stir fry the slice Rhizoma Anemarrhenae as described under the method for stir frying with salt -water (Appendix ll D) until dry.

Action  : To remove heat and quench fire, and to promote the production of body fluid and relieve dryness syndromes.

Indication  : febrile diseases with high fever and intense thirst; heat in the lung with dry cough; consumptive fever; diabetes due to internal heat; constipation

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 6 to 12 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a ventilated and dry place, protected from moisture.

Synonymns for Anemarrhena asphodeloides

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Anemarrhena asphodeloides

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Anemarrhena asphodeloides in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Tiancheng Ma, Jia Sun, Xiangkun Li, Yukun Ma, Lei Liu, Lina Guo, Qi Liu, Yu Sun
Optimization of extraction for Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. using silica gel-based vortex-homogenized matrix solid-phase dispersion and rapid identification of antioxidant substances.
J Sep Sci: 2020;
[PubMed:32133730] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Kexin Shi, Jiancheng Zhu, Deqi Chen, Cui Ren, Mingxin Guo, Juanxia Wang, Xia Wu, Yifan Feng
Lipidomics Analysis of Timosaponin BII in INS-1 Cells Induced by Glycolipid Toxicity and Its Relationship with Inflammation.
Chem. Biodivers.: 2020;
[PubMed:32064755] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Yang Ping, Yingpeng Li, Shaowa Lü, Yali Sun, Wanmeng Zhang, Jialin Wu, Ting Liu, Yongji Li
A study of nanometre aggregates formation mechanism and antipyretic effect in Bai-Hu-Tang, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction.
Biomed. Pharmacother.: 2020, 124;109826
[PubMed:31978766] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Huan Chen, Ting Pan, Panwang Liu, Ping Wang, Shijun Xu
Baihu Jia Guizhi Decoction Improves Rheumatoid Arthritis Inflammation by Regulating Succinate/SUCNR1 Metabolic Signaling Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: 2019, 2019;3258572
[PubMed:31949465] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Yun-Fang Zhao, Jing Zhou, Min-Jie Zhang, Min Zhang, Xue-Feng Huang
Cytotoxic steroidal saponins from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides.
Steroids: 2020, 155;108557
[PubMed:31866546] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects