Andrographis paniculata

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Andrographis paniculata

Andrographis paniculata in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Lanhelian é­ºËÁ« Yijianxi Ò»¼ûϲ Chinese Name (pinyin): Chuanxinlian

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Green Chiretta

Specific Name  : Herba andrographitis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in early autumn when the plant is growing luxuriantly and dried in the sun.

Description  : Stems square and frequently branched, 50 - 70cm long, nodes slightly expanded. Texture fragile, easily broken, leaves simple opposite, short petioled or nearly sessile, lumina crumpled and easily broken, when whole, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3 - 12cm long, 2 - 5cm wide with acuminate apex and cuneate-decurrent base, margin entire or undulate, upper surface green and lower surface greyish green. Glabrous on both surface, odor slight and taste extremely bitter.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section of leaf: Upper epidermal cells subsquare or rectangular, lower epidermal cells relatively small, both surface with crystal cells containing rounded, long-elliptical or clavate cystoliths. Glandular scales, sometimes non-glandular hairs visible. Palisade 1 - 2 rows of cells, across the upper part of midrib, spongy cells arranged loosely. Vascular bundles of midrib collateral and grooved, crystal cells occurring above the xylem.Surface view of leaf: Enlarge crystal cells occurring in the upper and lower epidermis, containing larger spiral cystoliths up to 36µm in diameter and 180µm long with a hilum-shaped scar in the large end, concentric striations wavy. Stomata more frequent on the lower epidermis, diacytic, sometimes anomocytic, subsidiary cells significantly varying in size. Head of glandular scales oblate, 4, 6, (8) celled up to 40µm in diameter, stalk very short, non-glandular hairs 1 - 4 celled, up to 160µm long and 40µm in diameter, with circular striations on the surface.2.To about 1g powder add 20ml of ethanol, heat to boil, filter, add 0.3g of activated charcoal to the filtrate, stir filter. To 1ml of the filtrate, add 1 - 2 drops of a mixture of dinitrobenzoic acid TS and potassium hydroxide in ethanol TS mixed in equal portions, a purple red color appears, to another 1ml of the filtrate add 1 drop of alkaline trinitrophenol TS, a brown color appears gradually. To The third 1ml of the filtrate add several drops of potassium hydroxide in ethanol TS, a red color appears gradually then change to yellow on standing.Assay: Macerate 0.5g weighed accurately (for water determination weigh accurately another 2g, heat at 105ºC until constant weight) in 30ml of ethanol for 30 minutes then ultrasonicate for 30 minutes, filter, wash the residue with three suitable portions of ethanol. Evaporate the combined filtrate and washings to dryness, dissolve the residue in dehydrated ethanol in a 10ml volumetric flask. Add dehydrated ethanol to volume, shake well and use it as the test solution. Dissolve dehydroandrographolide CRS, weighed accurately in dehydrated ethanol to produce a solution containing 1mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silca gel GF254 containing sodium carboxymetylcellulose as the coating substance and chloroform-acetone (15-7.5) as themobile phase. Apply alternately 4- 5µl of the reference solution to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, examine under ultra violet light (254nm). Carry out the thin layer chromatogaphy (thin layer chromatographic scanning method) Appendix Vl B, scan at wave length of ls=520nm and lR=370nm, measure the integration value of absorbance for the test solution and reference sol;ution and calculate. It contains not less than 0.4% of dehydroandrographolide (C20 H28 O4 ).

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, wash clean cut into sections and dry.

Action  : To remove heat, counteract toxicity, and induce subsidence of swelling.

Indication  : influenza with fever, sore throat, ulcers in the mouth or on the tongue; acute or chronic cough; colitis, dysentery; urinary tract infection with difficult painful urination; carbuncles, sores, venomous snake bite

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 6 to 9 g; appropriate quantity for external use.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place.

Synonymns for Andrographis paniculata

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Andrographis paniculata

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Andrographis paniculata in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Shih-Hurng Loh, Yi-Ting Tsai, Shu-Fu Huang, Tien-Chieh Yu, Pei-Chun Kuo, Shih-Chi Chao, Mei-Fang Chou, Chien-Sung Tsai, Shiao-Pieng Lee
Effects of Andrographolide on Intracellular pH Regulation, Cellular Migration, and Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer Cells †.
Cancers (Basel): 2020, 12(2);
[PubMed:32046125] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Xin-Fang Zhang, Ming-Jing Ding, Chen Cheng, Yi Zhang, Shui-Ying Xiang, Jing Lu, Zi-Bing Liu
Andrographolide attenuates oxidative stress injury in cigarette smoke extract exposed macrophages through inhibiting SIRT1/ERK signaling.
Int. Immunopharmacol.: 2020, 81;106230
[PubMed:32032850] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Kuan-Ho Lin, Shibu Marthandam Asokan, Wei-Wen Kuo, You-Liang Hsieh, Chong-Kuei Lii, Vijayapadma Viswanadha, Yi-Lin Lin, Shulin Wang, Caixian Yang, Chih-Yang Huang
Andrographolide mitigates cardiac apoptosis to provide cardio-protection in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.
Environ. Toxicol.: 2020;
[PubMed:32023008] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

M Rafi, A F Devi, U D Syafitri, R Heryanto, I H Suparto, M B Amran, A Rohman, B Prajogo, L W Lim
Classification of Andrographis paniculata extracts by solvent extraction using HPLC fingerprint and chemometric analysis.
BMC Res Notes: 2020, 13(1);56
[PubMed:32019574] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Wen Liu, Ting Fan, Manru Li, Guohui Zhang, Wenjie Guo, Xiaoling Yang, Chunhong Jiang, Xiang Li, Xiangyu Xu, Anshu Tang, Keqin Liu, Lixuan Liu, Lingdong Kong, Qiang Xu, Yang Sun
Andrographolide potentiates PD-1 blockade immunotherapy by inhibiting COX2-mediated PGE2 release.
Int. Immunopharmacol.: 2020, 81;106206
[PubMed:32018066] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I a)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects