Sophora tonkinensis

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Nomenclature

Other Names:

Historical Use of Sophora tonkinensis

Sophora tonkinensis in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Background

Chinese Name (pinyin): Shandougen

Chinese Name  :

Common Name  :Root of Tonkin Sophora

Specific Name  : Radix sophorae tonkinensis

Scientific Name:
Collection  : The drug is collected in autumn, removed from foreign matter, wash clean and dried.

Description  : Rhizomes irregular nodular, bearing remains of stem at the apex and several roots at the lower part. Roots long-cylindrical, usually branched, varying in length, 0.7 - 1.5 cm in diameter, externally brown to dull brown with irregular longitudinal wrinkles and prominent transversal lenticels. Texture hard, uneasily broken, fracture brownish in bark and pale yellow in wood. Odour bean like, taste very bitter.

Identification  : 1.Transverse section: Cork consisting of several 10 or more layers of cells. The outer 1 - 2 rows of cells in cortex containing prisms of calcium oxalate forming an interrupted ring of crystal cells with lignified and thickened walls. Fibre bundles scattered in cortex and phloem. Cambium in a ring. Xylem develop, rays 1 - 8 cells wide, vessels subrounded, mostly singly scattered or in groups of 2 or more, some containing yellowish brown contents. Xylem fibres grouped scattered. Parenchymatous cells filled with starch granules. A few cells containing prisms.2.Add a few drops of sodium hydroxide TS to the outer cortex, an orange red to blood red colour persists.3.To about 2 g of the powder add 70% ethanol, heat under reflux foe 30 minutes, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 5 ml of 1% hydrochloric acid solution, filter. To 1 ml of the filtrate add 1 drop of mercuric potassium iodide TS, a distinct pale yellow precipitate is produced.4.Shake 0.5 g of the coarse powder with 10 ml of chloroform and 0.2 ml of concentrated ammonia TS for 15 minutes, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 0.5 ml of chloroform as the test solution. Dissolve matrine CRS and oxymatrine CRS in chloroform to prepare a solution containing 1 mg per ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography (Appendix Vl B), using silica gel G containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the coating substance and chloroform-methanol-concentrated ammonia TS (8:2:0.2) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 1 - 2 µl of the test solution and 4 - 6 µl of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in the air, spray with potassium iodobismuthate TS. The orange yellow spots in the chromatogram obtained with test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution.

Processing  : Eliminate foreign matter, soak, wash clean, soften thoroughly, cut into thick slices and dry it in the sun.

Action  : To remove toxic heat, promote the subsidence of swelling, and soothe the sore throat.

Indication  : sore throat, painful swelling of the gums to due accumulation of toxic heat

Precautions  :

Dosage  : 3 to 9 g.

Storage  : Preserve in a dry place.

Synonymns for Sophora tonkinensis

Patent Medicines and Medicines with Multiple Ingredients that include Sophora tonkinensis

Pharmaceutical Information

Chemical Constituents

Evidence or the Use of Sophora tonkinensis in the Treatment of Epilepesy

Basic Science

Animal Studies

Cohort, Case-Control and Non-Randomized Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analysis

1st Five Results: pubmed search

Shuai-Nan Zhang, Ya-Feng He, Xu-Zhao Li, Wu-de Yang, Ying Zhou
Biolabel-led research pattern positions the effects and mechanisms of Sophorae Tonkinensis radix et rhizome on lung diseases: A novel strategy for computer-aided herbal medicine research based on omics and bioinformatics.
Comput Biol Med: 2021, 136;104769
[PubMed:34426169] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Shuai-Nan Zhang, Xu-Zhao Li, Wu-de Yang, Ying Zhou
Sophorae tonkinensis radix et rhizome-induced pulmonary toxicity: A study on the toxic mechanism and material basis based on integrated omics and bioinformatics analyses.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci: 2021, 1179;122868
[PubMed:34333216] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Xuanrong Sun, Tianwei Zhang, Yue Cai, Ke Yang, Tingting Peng, Renhao Liu, Xing-Nuo Li
Tonkinensine B induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in triple-negative breast cancer cells.
J Pharm Pharmacol: 2021, 73(10);1397-1404
[PubMed:34313786] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Jing-Hang Yang, Shi-Qi Kang, Xiao-Hui Su, Na Lin, Xiang-Ying Kong
[Visual analysis of research progress of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma based on CiteSpace].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi: 2021, 46(7);1763-1768
[PubMed:33982480] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Shuai-Nan Zhang, Hong-Mei Li, Xu-Zhao Li, Wu-de Yang, Ying Zhou
Integrated omics and bioinformatics analyses for the toxic mechanism and material basis of Sophorae Tonkinensis radix et rhizome-induced hepatotoxicity.
J Pharm Biomed Anal: 2021, 198;113994
[PubMed:33676169] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Safety

Allergies

Side Effect and Warnings

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adverse Effects